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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Friday, April 17, 2015

History Analysis of Water Resource Management Garhwal under Gurkha /Gorkha Rule

History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal - 27
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -92    
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -611
                          By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

                               Water Resource Management
  Garhwal Shah Kingdom did not promote water resource Management as state duty. However, whenever time came; their Thokdar built or dig Khali or canal. Most of the water resource innovation or improvement was done by people themselves.
            There is a folk story of Uttarkashi that a man had to marry his two daughters to Old man who was Himachal Watermill Owner for getting Water Mill Technology from Himachal Watermill Owner (Bhishma Kukreti,merapahad.com). That means people were conscious about natural resource management.
      There were Khali constructions on top of hills for water conservation. There were ‘raw’ a small pond dug for water uses for fetching water to animals and irrigation too.
 Canals were dug by people for irrigation and drinking water. The canals were dug by community.
  Gurkha /Gorkha administration never paid attention on canal or Khali constructions in its rule in Garhwal, Kumaon or Himachal.  
                            Kool or Gul a Water Resource Management
 Water was diverted from source through small or big canals and dug by community. Whever, water flow was obstructed by Gadan, hard rock or a boulder the bana trunk, or wood log was used to channelize the water. (Dr Ajay S Rawat).
                     Naula a Water Resource Management
 Naula is dug and constructed for collecting water from subterranean springs. Naulas were community properties and were called prestigious community properties.
                  Dhara a Water Resource Management
  Dhara is Water fountain type of system. There were /are three types of Dhara (Ajay Rawat, 2006)
1-Sirpatiya Dhara- When individual can easily fetch water in normal standing position such Dhara is called Sirpatiya Dhara.
2-Mudpatiya Dhara- When individual has to bend for water fetching such Dhara is called Mudpatiya or Murpatiya Dhara.
3-Patveediya Dhara- Pattveed means made by leave or called ephemeral Dahra and is availavle only in rainy season.
                Simar or Gajar
This source is due to marshy land and paddy is grown in such land.  
           Khali or Chhuptaula
 These are smallest pond types on top of hills.
                 Tal
Those were natural ponds
           Dhaam
 Dhaam are natural or artificial lakes.
         Raw
Raw are dug or constructed and stream water is collected on these pits or big ditches. Fibrous sticks are also submerged in Raw for getting fibers from Bheunl /Bheemal and hemp sticks.
 Gorkha administrators did not do anything to improve water source or irrigation facilities etc. in Doti, Kumaon, Garhwal and Himachal.

** History, Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal...Remaining part, read in next chapter

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com16/4//2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -612
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter 

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX
                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of aFive Years Residence at Nepaul Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti

XXX
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas; Gurkha/Gorkha ks kumson psr Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal, Uttarakhand;कुमाऊं उत्तराखंड काइतिहास गढ़वाल उत्तराखंड का इतिहास डोटी पूर्व उत्तराखंड का इतिहास;गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का कुमाऊं पर अधिकार इतिहास गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं कागढ़वाल पर अधिकार इतिहास गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का हिमाचल पर अधिकारइतिहास गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का  इतिहास नेपाल इतिहास
Xx
History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Pauri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Chamoli Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Rudraprayag Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Tehri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Uttarkashi Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Dehradun Garhwal; 
Xx
History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in Upper Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in South Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in North Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in South Garhwal, Uttarakhand History Analysis of Exploitation of Natural Resources by Gurkha/Gorkha in Dehradun, Uttarakhand ; History Discussion on Forest Management in Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History Discussion on Forest Management in Kumaon  in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History Analysis of water Resource Management and Crafts in Garhwal under Gurkha /Gorkha Rule