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Thursday, April 30, 2015

Pilgrim Highways in Garhwal, Kumaon in Gurkha /Gorkha Period

Highways in Kumaon and Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period -4

History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal - 41
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -104    
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -625
                          By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

 There were many pilgrim roads in Garhwal.
  Haridwar to Shrinagar was a major Pilgrim Highway. There was road from Devprayag to Gangotri and Yamunotri. It was belief that it was the best to visit Badrinath after visits to Yamunotri, Gangotri and Kedarnath. However, the condition of roads was such bad that very few pilgrims could do so. Yamunotri road was the most difficult one. On Gangotri road, there was a Jhula /rope way bridge on Jadganga River at Bhaironghati. That bridge was in bad situation that people seldom used it. Due to ignoring Highway repairs by Gurkha administration, there was decline in Gangotri visits by pilgrims.
       Haridwar –Shrinagar Highway was also a commercial highway. Hastidal Chautariya once ordered to repair the highway. Domestic animals were used for transpiration on Haridwar- Shrinagar Highway but beyond Shrinagar, it was difficult for animals to walk on those roads to Kedarnath or Badrinath.
 There was a road from Joshimath to Neeti valley but that was also in bad condition. The Joshimath to Neeti Valley road was important for connection Tibet too. That road was used for Kailas Mansarovar Pilgrimage.
 Though those roads were also important for defense point of view, Gurkha never paid attention for maintain those road.

*** This chapter References –
Moorcroft, Travels in Hindustan Atkinson
 Trail, Sketches of Kumaon  
** Most of details were taken from Dr Dabral

* History of Highways in Gorkha /Nepal Period in Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal in next chapter …    

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com30/4//2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -626
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter 

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of a Five Years Residence at Nepal Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti

History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon, Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Sirmour Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Kangara Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Baghat Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Punar Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Nahan Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, History Himachal; 
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas; Gurkha/Gorkha ka Kumaon par  Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal,