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Tuesday, April 28, 2015

Highways in Kumaon and Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period

History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal - 38
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -102    
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -622
                          By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

         Temples and Dharmsalyan (religious Rest Houses) in Gurkha Period   

           Gurkha paid attention on temples and religious rest houses. Gurkha administrators retained land for major temples (sadvart). Amar Singh Thapa repaired Bhaironghati, Kedarnath and Gangotri Temples too. Gurkha built Ghat and Haveli in Haridwar. Gurkha also built or repair a bridge perhaps –Lakhshman Jhula Pul. Bamshah and Rudravir Shah built a few religious rest houses on major temple tour rod.
                     Highways of Gurkha Period
             Gurkha/Gorkha soldiers and officers were habitual to walk on ‘Gurbat’ (In normal circumstances that are used by domestic animals). Therefore, they never paid attention on National Highways or State Highways.
               Nazibabad –Shrinagar Highway
          In this highway people used to reach from Nazibabad Mandi to Shrinagar. Nazibabad was wholesale market for Garhwalis in terms of export and import. The rout was from Nazibabad to Shrinagar via Kotdwara –Ghat (Bhabhar), Amsaud, Dwarikhal, Banghat, Kanskhet, Adwani to Shringar.
       Bulls and horses were used for loading the goods. Garhwal kings used to repair the road when there was need. However, Gurkha/Gorkha did not pay attention on widening or repairing the road.
               Hardwick travelled on Nazibabad –Shrinagar route with ease. Saxena comments that the road was broken at many places in Gurkha Period (Historical papers related to Kumaon).
** Most of aspects were taken from  Dr Dabral
* History of Highways in Gorkha /Nepal Period in  Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal in next chapter …    

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com27/4//2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -623
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter 

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX
                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of a Five Years Residence at Nepal Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti

XXX
History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon, Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Sirmour Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Kangara Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Baghat Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Punar Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Nahan Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, History Himachal; 
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas; Gurkha/Gorkha ka Kumaon par  Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal,
Xx
History Highways in Kumaon and Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History Highways in Old Nainital Kumaon and Old Pauri Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History Highways in Old Almora Kumaon and Old Tehri Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; History Highways in Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon and Dehradun Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period;