History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -109
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -355
By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)
According to Manodaya Kavya, Garhwal King Manshah was a serious person, brave as Bheema, and bright as the Sun.
Manshah used to follow code of conduct (Neetishastra).
Manshah was always ready to punish the criminals and used to protect and reward to noble people.
Conditions of Subject under King Manshah
The people of Garhwal were prosperous and happy in the Manshah ruling period.
Manshah protected the people of Taknaur and Painkhnada by defeating Tibet looters. Manshah defeated Kumaon king for seven times and his fame reached to other parts of India.
Statement of Business Tourist William Finch
The business tourist William Finch appreciated the ruling of Mansha (Manshah). Willam Finch described that the kingdom was in between Ganga and Yamuna Rivers and Shrinagar was the capital. Finch mentions that the King Mansha was brave and strong. The king used to take meal on gold plates. Finch states that the length of Kingdom was 300 Kos and width was 150 Kos. The snow felled on the Dhaulagiri hills and people used to come down towards south in valley. The border of Garhwal king was started 200 Kos from Agra. William described that the South Garhwal –Dehradun and Bhabhar (50 Kos from Sarhind) was very fertile.
Manpur the Capital
Manshah established the capital in a part of Shrinagar at Alaknanda River bank. There were high buildings in Manpur. The fort was beautiful and protected.
There was grand bazaar in Shrinagar where heavy trading used to happen. Shrinagar was famous for Kasturi or musk.
The town was famous for scholars, artists and musicians. Pundits were busy in chanting Veda rhymes.
The night was spectacular by light of earthen lamps.
There were trees of Kadamb, Kachnar, Mango, Jamun, Dadim etc outside of capital. Common birds were Parrots, cuckoo, Baj, Pigeons, peacocks, chickens, etc.
Court of Manshah
The ministers of Manshah were learned, righteous and were capable interpreters of Dharmashastra. Ministers were learned to make right judgment. Spies were clever. Manshah used to think before offering judgment. He believes in law and order. King used to take advices from his right advisors and ministers. People were happy under Manshah.
Ruling Period of Garhwal King Manshah
Becket stated that ruling period of Manshah was 1498-1518. However, the Devprayag inscriptions of 1608 1nd 1611 disapprove the theory of Backet.
Raturi stated that ruling period of Manshah was from 1591-1611. This period seems to be correct.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, firstname.lastname@example.org/6/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -356
1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications
27- H. Blochmann, 1873, Aine e- Akbari Translation
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter
Notes on South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal; SouthAsian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal; Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal; South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal; South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal; Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal; South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal; Medieval History of Haridwar ; South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar; South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ; South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued
History of Personality of Garhwal King Manshah /Man Shah; History of Personality of Garhwal King Manshah /Man Shah in context History of Bhabhar Garhwal; History of Personality of Garhwal King Manshah /Man Shah in context History of Haridwar Garhwal; History of Personality of Garhwal King Manshah /Man Shah in context History of Dehradun Garhwal; History of Personality of Garhwal King Manshah /Man Shah in context History of Uttarkashi Garhwal; History of Personality of Garhwal King Manshah /Man Shah in context History of Tehri Garhwal; History of Personality of Garhwal King Manshah /Man Shah in context History of Rudraprayag Garhwal; History of Personality of Garhwal King Manshah /Man Shah in context History of Chamoli Garhwal; History of Personality of Garhwal King Manshah /Man Shah in context History of Pauri Garhwal;