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Monday, March 31, 2014

History of Pilgrim Places in Garhwal-Haridwar around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500)

 History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -59    
                                            
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -304 

                       ByBhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student

Pilgrim Places in Garhwal-Haridwar around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500)

               Ganga had been a poise River for Indians of all sects from the beginning of Human society in Uttarakhand. Therefore, from Mahabharata or Vedic period, the places of Ganga bank were pilgrim places for Indians.
               The inscriptions of Dev Prayag and Gopeshwar suggest that pilgrims used to reach those difficult places. Gangotri and Yamnotri had been witnessing landslides from the old age.  Therefore, we don’t have inscriptions found in these places. However, definitely, pilgrims definitely used to visit those places too.
   Shaivya, Vaishnava, Shakt sects encouraged pilgrim places of Uttarakhand. Kedar or Kailas and Mansarovar Kailas had bee Shaivya pilgrim places from the ages. Ramnath Math of Kedarnath is one of five auspicious Maths of Shaivya. Badrinath was one of main Maths of Vaishnavas. Shakt had Maths or Peeths in Garhwal and Haridwar as Haridwar (Gangadwar), Rishikesh, Shripur (Shrinagar), Kailas (Kedarnath), Bhrigukhal, Bhrigupanth and Badrinath.
  Indians used to come to Garhwal for paying tributes to their dead forefathers (Purkhon ka Pinddan).
The following piligrim places were famous from 1200-1500 in Garhwal
Gangadwar –Haridwar
Kankhal
Kanwashram
Rishikesh
Dev Prayag
Rikhyad (Rishiadda ) Udaipur , Salan
Gopeshwar
Kalimath
Jyotirmath
Badrikashram
Kedar
Badahat
Temple of Jaunsar

            Siddh Garhwal-Haridwar around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500)

                Siddham and Oum Namo Siddham phrases were famous religious phrases before first century. Aorund tenth century, Bamamargi and Vajrayani Buddhists were called Siddh.
  Around thirteenth century, Muslim attackers destroyed Buddhist and Sanatani /Vedic/Hindu/Garab worshipping places and religious Conferences Places. Buddhist worshipping places at Bijnor, Moradabad, and Haridwar were destroyed too. The monks and administrating monks of Buddhist worshipping places migrated to Bhabhar and Himalayan and Siwalik Hills of Garhwal. Siddh influenced people of Garhwal.
                    Siddh using promoting Languages  

            Siddh took shelters in villages rather than in capital of chieftains. Those Siddh started creating Mantra in local language that is Garhwali of their time. The Siddh preaching were revolutionary and against Sanatani or customary preaching. However, Siddh were promoting blind faith too. Due to Muslim disturbances there was political, social, cultural, economical instability and turmoil all over. Therefore, new experimentations, new research and developmental works in agriculture, infrastructures, medical science, forestry, water resources, were stand still. People had only one hope and that was GOD. Siddh fulfilled the need of people. Siddha created Mantra in local language. However, those mantras language took newer shapes always with the changing time. However, beliefs on Mantra still exist in Garhwal in present time.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com31/3//2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -305 

                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter          
Notes on  South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued…   
Xx
History of Pilgrim Places in Garhwal-Haridwar around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History of Pilgrim Places in Garhwal around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History of Pilgrim Places in Pauri Garhwal around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History of Pilgrim Places in Chamoli Garhwal around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History of Pilgrim Places in Rudraprayag Garhwal around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History of Pilgrim Places in Tehri Garhwal around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History of Pilgrim Places in Uttarkashi Garhwal around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History of Pilgrim Places in Dehradun Garhwal around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500);History of Pilgrim Places Haridwar around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500)