Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -70
History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -260
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -507
By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)
It is essential there is discussion on marriage types in old and current India. There were /are following types of marriages –
1-Endogamy –Marriage with similar social group or tribe
2-Exogamy- Marriage outside the social group or tribe
3-Polygamy-Having more than one wife at a time
4-Polyandry- Having more than one husband at a time
5-Monoandry/Monogamy - Having one husband at a time or only one wife at a time
Before, discussing the types of marriage in Garhwal, it is better to discuss the types of marriage mentioned in Mahabharata.
Eight Marriage Types in Mahabharata
Mahabharata describes, following eight types of marriages –
1-Arsha Type of Marriage in Mahabharata
The bride is offered two cows in her exchange. That shows the groom is poor and can’t afford Brahma type of marriage. The groom is typically a Sage /Rishi.
2-Asura or Khas Type of Marriage in Mahabharata
The bride side (bride parents or relatives) is offered wealth from groom side.
3- Brahma Type of Marriage in Mahabharata
In this marriage type, the bride side analyses, considers the conduct; disposal, learning, lineage; respect and achievements of groom before offering daughter to the matrimonial proposal of groom.
4- Daivya Type of Marriage in Mahabharata
The father waits to find the most suitable groom. The daughter’s father or relatives offered girl to the priest after Yagya.
5- Gandhrva Type of Marriage in Mahabharata
The parents marry their daughter as per choice of daughter even though parents might not agree with the views of daughter.
6- Paishacha Type of Marriage in Mahabharata
The groom or groom side takes bride with force even bride in unconscious condition.
7- Prajapatya or Kshatriy Type of Marriage in Mahabharata
First the groom is identified and then groom is enticed by wealth, gifts, and presents etc for winning the groom heart or mind.
8- Rakshasa Type of Marriage in Mahabharata
The kinsmen or relatives of bride are killed, beaten and the bride taken. The bride does not/object/ resist in such marriage.
Reference --- (Bhishma Purva , Chapter -3)
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, email@example.com/12/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -508
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued
Notes on South Asian Modern Period History of Garhwal; South Asian Modern Period History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian Modern Period History of Chamoli Garhwal; South Asian Modern Period History of Rudraprayag Garhwal; South Asian Modern History of Tehri Garhwal; South Asian Modern History of Uttarkashi Garhwal; South Asian Modern Period History of Dehradun, Garhwal; Modern History of Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period History of Manglaur, Haridwar; South Asian Modern Period History of Rurkee Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal