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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Monday, March 30, 2015

History: Land Settlement in Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Rule

History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal - 14
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -79    
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -598

                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

                  Initial Land Administration in Gurkha /Gorkha Rule
       Around, 1803-4, Gurkha/Gorkha soldiers spread terror among all sects of people in Garhwal by setting houses, crops under fire; looting houses and rapping women around Shrinagar region. The terror was such horror full that still Garhwalis equate Gurkhyani (Gurkha rule) with Devil Most Rule. In Garhwali, Gurkhyani means terror and horror.
   Gurkha/Gorkha burnt records of Garhwal Kingdom. They also sent a few records to Nepal.
  Amar Singh Thapa took support of administrators of Garhwal King for land settlement and revenue collection.
 The tax collection record was called “Dhade” or Fard. There are Dhade or Fard of 1805.
                           Garkha or Jadad
  Gurkha /Gorkha divided Garhwal into 84 Garkh or units. An Army officer was made in charge of Garkh or Unit. The Garkh was called Jadad (Jayjad or Property) of that particular officer. Army officer was responsible for administration and revenue collection.
                                 Levying Tax
      Gurkha reduced types of tx collected by Garhwal Kingdom under ‘Chhatis Rakam or Batis Kalam’ provision. However, Gurkha increased total taxes. The salaries of army was criteria for levying Tax and not fertility or productivity of land.  

 Trail mentions following taxes in Gurkha rule-
Mau-Kar or Tax per family-
Tand Kar or weaving machine tax
Mijhari or Doom Tax – from leather maker and sellers
Ghee Kar – tax for  Milk providing cows, buffalos
Salami Kar- Gifts for officers in his visit
Sonya Fagun Tax or Festival Tax
Adhani or Administration tax- for the offices of officers –half Ana per rupee
Asmani –Farmani – Punishmnet on cash basis
The Kamin used to levy tax for his own purpose too.
 There was no fixed system for taking or levying taxes by all army officers. For example Bhakti Thapa wrote letter to Kamins of Dhangu as follows for tax -


               भक्ति थापा का ढांगु के कमीणो को संवत १८६४ चैत्र १४ गते (मार्च 1807 ) भेजा गया पत्र
------------------------
श्री इष्ट देवता
शरण भक्तिवीर
थापा स्व मुद्रा
------------------------
 श्री दुर्गा -१
स्वस्तिश्री भक्ति थापकस्य पत्रं आगे ढांगु  का कमीण घमडू कल्या राउत गबलू सोबनू भागदेव बिष्ट के जथोचित (उ ) प्रान्त हाम्रो रकम साल ६२ देषितमिछे  उवकिर स्याकोर साल ६३ को बाकी हामीले उमराहेरुको तनुषागरिको दियाको छ तप्सील हेरी भरिभराई सवाई भक्ति गरि देऊ
साल ६२ को टिका भेंट  रु०  ३९१
साल ६२ को पगरि   रु० १००
साल ६२ को समांगी    रु० १५६ III )
                                                            ----------------------------------------------
                                                                 ६४७ III )
साल ६३ को ढांगुको पगरि   रु० ३
साल ६३ को ढांगुको सुमांगी  रु० ६६१
                                                            ----------------------------------------------------

                                                                      ६६४
                                                            ----------------------------------------------

साल ६२ -६३ को सर्व जोड़ २ जोड़                             १३११ III )
(* स्रोत्र - थोकदार औतार सिंह रावत का संग्रह पत्र सं -१ (डा डबराल की पुस्तक उत्तराखंड का इतिहास भाग ५ पृष्ठ १९० -१९१ से उद्घृत)



** History, Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal...Remaining part, read in next chapter

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com31/3//2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -599
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter 

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX
                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of aFive Years Residence at Nepaul Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern

XXX
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas; Gurkha/Gorkha ks kumson psr Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal, Uttarakhand;कुमाऊं उत्तराखंड काइतिहास गढ़वाल उत्तराखंड का इतिहास डोटी पूर्व उत्तराखंड का इतिहास;गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का कुमाऊं पर अधिकार इतिहास गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं कागढ़वाल पर अधिकार इतिहास गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का हिमाचल पर अधिकारइतिहास गोरखाओं /गुर्खाओं का  इतिहास नेपाल इतिहास
Xx
History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Pauri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Chamoli Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Rudraprayag Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Tehri Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Uttarkashi Garhwal; History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Dehradun Garhwal; 
History:  Gurkha/Gorkha Army Administration in Old Pauri Garhwal , History:  Gurkha/Gorkha Army Administration in Old Tehri Garhwal,     History:  Gurkha/Gorkha Army Administration in Dehradun, Garhwal; History: Judiciary and Executive Gurkha/ Gorkha Administrative Officers in Garhwal; History: Judiciary and Executive Gurkha/ Gorkha Administrative Officers in Old Pauri Garhwal; History: Judiciary and Executive Gurkha/ Gorkha Administrative Officers in Tehri Garhwal; History: Judiciary and Executive Gurkha/ Gorkha Administrative Officers in Dehradun Garhwal; History: Judiciary and Executive Gurkha/ Gorkha Administrative Officers in Kumaon