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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Tuesday, August 26, 2014

Raids from Maratha and Sikhs in Dehradun and Haridwar

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -164    

   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -411

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

                               Raids of Maratha
  In 1757, Malhar Rav Holkar the Maratha ruler reached to Saharanpur with his army and Nazeeb Khand had to flee towards his west Rohilla region. Maratha raided on Saharanpur including Doon and Haridwar. Maratha army looted the region. As Maratha reached to Punjab, Nazeeb freed doon and Saharanpur. On 10th October 1759, Maratha army crossed Ganga from Chandi Ghat and marched towards Nazibabad. Maratha captured Sabbal Garh Fort and reached near Nazibabad. However, Maratha could not capture Nazibabad Fort. Maratha looted the area.
                           Third Panipat Battle
         Marathas captured Punjab from Ahmad Shah Abdali. In 1760, Ahmad Shah Abdali attacked on Maratha in Punjab. Rohilla Comander Nazeeb Khan and Awadh ruler Shuja Uddaula helped Ahamd Shah Abdali against Marathas. Maratha asked help from other Hindu Kings but they refused to do so.
 Kumaon King sent his 4000 soldiers under Hari Ram and Birbal Singh Negi for Rohilla and Ahmad Shah Abdali. There was a treaty between Shiv Datt Joshi of Kumaon that in case, Abdali is defeated by Maratha, Nazeeb Khan would take shelter in Kumaon. Nazeeb Khan appointed Harsh Dev Joshi as resident of Nazibabad region in his absence. Marathas were defeated very badly. Ahmad Shah Abdali handed over again the charge of Delhi to Nazeeb Khan. Nazeeb Khan became the ruler of Delhi.
                       Raids of Sikhs

  Due to invasion of Abdali, the administration in Punjab became weak. The Sikh armed soldiers started raiding here and there. Sikh raiders also raided in Haridwar and Don Regions regularly. Nazeeb was unable to stop the raids of Sikh.
In 1764, 4000 armed Sikhs raided into Dehradun and looted the area. They raided whole of Rohillas. In 1768, Nazeeb Khan handed over his charge to his son Zabita Khan. Initially Zabita Khan tried to stop Sikhs but later on, Zabita Khan paid tribute to Sikhs and had temporary treaty.
                           Fall of Zabita Khan
  Nazeeb Khan died on 23rd February 1772. Zabita Khan took th e charge of Delhi as Meer Bakshi. Jabita Khan was Meer Bakshi of Delhi for three months. In February 1771, Maratha attacked on Delhi and pushed away Jabita Khan from Delhi.
 After one year that is on 23rd February, Maratha and Mughal armies crossed Ganga from Chandi Ghat and attacked on Rohilla army.
 Faijulla Khan the brother in law of Zabita Khan escaped into Tarai with lot of wealth and his family.
On the same night, Jabita Khan also escaped from his camp towards hills in north.
Maratha army captured Afjalkhan the uncle of Zabita Khan. Many army chiefs of jabita Khan ran away from Rohilla region. Maratha army surrounded Nazibabad fort for 15 days. In the mean time, Maratha army was engaged looting the region too. On 15th day, Martha could capture the Pathar Durg of Nazibabad fort. Maratha allowed the Rohilla families to go away elsewhere. However, Maratha did punish the Turani Mughal people. Maratha made men and women naked. Another Meer Bakshi Nazaf Khan freed Turani Mughal from Marathas. Maratha took revenge of deceits and wicked acts of Nazeeb Khan.
  Maratha dug the treasurer of Nazeeb Khan and took twenty days in digging and looting. Maratha captured wealth worth of ten lakhs with thousand of horses, elephants, guns and ammunition. Now, Mughal Emperor had right over Zabita khan’s Jagir.
                         Recapturing Dehradun by Pradip Shah
 When bad days of Zabita Khan started, Pradip Shah took back Dehradun from Rohillas. However, at that time Pradip Shah had become old and weak. The administration of Dehradun was being held with the advice of Guru Ram Rai Darbar.
                     Death of Pradip Shah
  Pradip Shah had a paralysis attack and became very weak. He was medicated but could not recover. Pradip Shah died in 1772.  
          Characteristics of Garhwal King Pradip Shah
 Pradip Shah was peace loving King and used to forgive his subordinate for unforgivable mistakes too.
Medhakar Shastri was the court poet of Pradip Shah. Medhkar Shastri created Ramayanpradip in Sanskrit. Medhkar  Shastri also edited Manodaykavya.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com25/8/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -412
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
Notes on South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  SouthAsian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued