History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -168
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -415
By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)
Jai Kirti or Jay Krit Shah getting Crown
Pradyumna Shah was ascended on Kumaon crown. However, his father Lalit Shah could not see Pradyuman Shah in Almora court. The favorites administrators of queen Dotiyali were eager to ascend Pradyumna as Kumaon King and his own younger brother Parakram Shah as Garhwal King. However, when Lalit shah died Pradyumna and Parakram were minor. Therefore, supporters of Queen Dotiyali could not execute their planning. Therefore, the eldest prince Jai Kirti Shah was ascended on crown. Jai Kirti Shah was the most unlucky Garhwal King who never enjoyed peaceful life due to factionalism among his administrators. The Kingdom ministers and elites deceived him at regular intervals.
Ruling Period of King Jai Kirti Shah
The following suggestions are for ruling period of King Jai Kirti Shah.
Mukandilal – 1780-1785.
Raturi is wrong as when Hardwick reached in 1796 in Shrinagar, Pradyumna Shah was the Garhwal King.
There are copper inscriptions of Pradyuman Shah as Kumaon King for the years of 1781-1784. There are copper inscriptions of Mohan Chand as the King of Kumaon for 1786-1788. That means Jai Kirti Shah was definitely Garhwal King from 1780 to 1783. Jai Kirti Shah died in 1785. When Garhwali army from Kumaon attacked and looted Dvalgarh , jai Kirti Shah had to flee.
Rise and Fall of Minister Nitya Nand Khanduri
There were many factions in the court of Jai Kirti Shah. A faction wanted to see Parakram as King and other faction was interested in diminishing other faction from the court. The administrators were mainly divided in two groups led by Dobhal and Khanduri clans. Nitya Nand Khanduri was leader of Khanduri group and Kripa Ram Dobhal was leader of Dobhal group.
Pradip Shah appointed a Khanduri as chief minister in place of Shankar Dobhal (perhaps Nitya Nand Khanduri). That Khanduri stopped all the government policies set by Dobhal. Khanduri stopped Jagir and Vriti of many people set by Dobhal. That is why there was enmity between Khanduri and Dobhal families. It is said that till recent modern time, there was no marriage between Doval /Dobhal and Khanduri families.
In the time of Lalit Shah and early period of Jai Kirti Shah, Nitya Nand Khanduri was on the most important posts of Mahamantri and Mukhtar (chief minister and chief accountant). Therefore, most of the court employees had to depend for favor from Nitya Nand Khanduri. Nitya Nand was also offered Jagirdar of Salan region. The income of Salan was one and quarter lakh per annum.
Prempati Khanduri was a minister in Lalit Shah’s rule. Prempati was a favorite of queen Dotiyali. Therefore, in Kumaon campaign, Lalit Shah sent Prempati Khanduri to Almora with Joshis. Prem Pati became supporter of Joshis and started sending reports to Shrinagar from Almora as per advices of Joshis. Prempati became guardian of Pradyuman Shah in Almora when Pradyuman came to Kumaon as King.
Kripa Ram Dobhal as Chief Minister
Lalit Shah made Kripa Ram Dobhal as guardian of prince jai Kirti Shah. Lalit Shah never liked Jai Kirti Shah. Kripa Ram Dobhal had sympathy with Jai Kirti Shah and his mother. When Kai Kirti Shah became Garhwal King in Shrinagar, Jai Kirti Shah appointed Kriparam Dobhal as Chief Minister. However, Nitya Nand Khanduri was accountant and Jagirdar (Chieftain) of Salan.
Kriparam Dobhal corrected and improved the administration. Jai Kirti shah and other appreciated the improved administration of Kriparam Dobhal. Nitya Nand Khanduri was enraged watching the progress of his enemy. Nitya Nand Khanduri took a vow with other selfish ministers for diminishing Kriparam Dobhal and his supporters.
Conspiracy of Nitya Nand Khanduri against King Jai Kirti Shah
Nitya Nand was unable to watch Kripa Ram’s rise in Garhwal court. He started to be at his home only. Nitya Nand Khanduri sent a secret letter to Jaya Nand Joshi of Kumaon Court in Almora. Nitya Nand Khanduri wrote that Kripa Ram Doval had taken whole power in his hand. Nitya Nand wrote that Kriparam Doval was busy in formulating strategy to win Kumaon for Jai Kirti Shah. Khanduri cautioned Joshis that if Kripa Ram Doval becomes successful in winning Kumaon, he would dispatch Joshis out of Kumaon. Nitya Nand Khanduri called Joshis to come to Shrinagar for killing Kriparam Dobhal and taking Pradyuman Shah to Kumaon.
Nitya Nand Khanduri lured Joshis that Pradyuman and Parakram were minors therefore; it was Joshi to rule in Kumaon and Khanduri to rule Garhwal after death of Jai Kirti Shah and Kriparam Dobhal.
Threats from Joshis of Kumaon
After receiving letter from Nitya Nand Khanduri, Jaya Nand Joshi the minister of Kumaon made a strategy for attacking Garhwal. Jay Nand Joshi wrote letter to Kripa Ram Dobhal. The letter stated that after getting instruction from King Lalit Shah they (Joshis) appointed forces in Almora for diminishing Mohan Chand forever and ascending Pradyuman Shah as Kumaon King. The letter referred that the newly appointed force and old force is asking salaries. Joshi informed Dobhal that the soldiers were restless for Pradyuman Shah not arriving in Almora and their salaries. The soldiers threatened that if salaries were not paid they would attack on Shrinagar.
Kriparam Dobhal was a deeply worried man after receiving the letter.
Kripa Ram Dobhal got advices from his brother in laws Shri Vilas Nautiyal and Bhavanand Nautiyal and called an emergency meeting of all ministers, three groups of Negi at his residence. Nitya Nand Khanduri did not attend the meet. Kriparam Dobhal went in person to meet Nitya Nand Khanduri at his residence. Nitya Nand Khanduri pretended as ailing old man and pardoned for not attending meeting.
Nitya Nand told a man that that Dobhal was dangerous man and wanted to get all power. Kripa Ram found that Nitya Nand wanted Jai Krit Shah out of crown and wanted to make Parakram Shah as Garhwal King. Kripa Ram Dobhal also found that Nitya Nand Khanduri invited Jay Nand to attack on Shrinagar.
Fall of Nitya Nand Khanduri
Kripa Ram was sure that Nitya Nand Khanduri was deceiving. Kripa Ram Doval met important ministers and elites and got them with him to help Jai Kirti Shah. He called all ministers, Bakshi, Negi, Khan, Khavas , Goldar and Faujdar to his residence. Dobhal cleared to all that Nitya Nand Khanduri wanted to get rid of Jai Kirti Shah. He cleared that who wanted Jai Kirti Shah as Garhwal King they should be with him and those wanted Jai Kirti Shah not as Garhwal King they may join Nitya Nand Khanduri. Every minister told that they are with Jai Kirti Shah. Kripa Ram Dobhal took religious promise (Jhalikhanda) from each minister and elite to protect Garhwal King jai Kirti Shah.
N hat same night, Kriparam captured Nitya Nand Khanduri and his all family members including his old wife and put them in Banag Garh prison. Nitya Nand Khanduri was made complete blind by putting indigo into his eyes.
Kriparam distributed the wealth among others. Kriparam captured his Jagir and land. Kriparam became Jagirdar of Salan. Kriparam appointed Devi Datt as Daftari (accountant) in place of Nitya Nand Khanduri.
Maularam described the above events in Garhrajvanshkavya. Maularam did not mention anything about the role of King Jai Kirti Shah.
val of Joshis in Shrinagar
Jaya Nand Joshi was on his way to Shrinagar as per the advice of Nitya Nand Khanduri. On the way to Shrinagar, Jaya Nand Joshi got information that Kriparam put Nitya Nand Khanduri and his family into prison. It was not possible for Jaya Nand Joshi to go back to Kumaon without visiting Shrinagar. Jay Nand Joshi was a wise man and knew to take advantage of adverse situation too. Jaya Nand Joshi reached to Shrinagar. Kriparam Dobhal sent a messenger to Jaya Nand Joshi to know the motto of Jaya Nand. Jaya Nand Joshi sent a letter that since Garhwal King Jai Kirti Shah was also his King and Joshi had come to meet his King. Jaya Nand Joshi also confirmed that he had come to take Kumaon King Pradyuman Shah with him to Almora.
Kripa Ram arranged staying facilities for Jaya Nand Joshi. On a day, Kriparam arranged meeting of Jaya Nand Joshi with the King Jai Kirti Shah.
Jaya Nand Joshi pleaded to jai Kirti Shah to send Kumaon King Pradyuman Shah to Kumaon. Jaya Nand Joshi told to the King that since there was no King in Kumaon the subject was not ready for paying taxes and there was overdue of salaried of armed forces.
After discussion with Kriparam Dobhal, Jai Kirti Shah agreed to send Pradyuman Shah to Almora with Joshi. However, jai Kirti Shah refused to pay the salary of armed forces from Garhwal Kingdom. Jai Kirti Shah clearly told to Jaya Nand Joshi that forces belong to Kumaon and hence it was duty of Kumaon Kingdom to settle the dues on it. Jaya Nand was now a frustrated man. He accepted that Kumaon Kingdom would look after its accounts.
Pradyuman Shah was sent to Almora with Jaya Nand Joshi. Garhwal King offered a horse as gift to Jaya Nand Joshi. Pradyuman Shah was now as Pradyuman Chand and was sent to Almora with grace and in festive situation.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, email@example.com/8/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -416
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
Notes on South Asian Early Modern Period History of Garhwal; South Asian Early Modern Period History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian Early Modern Period History of Chamoli Garhwal; South Asian Early Modern Period History of Rudraprayag Garhwal; South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal; Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal; South Asian Early Modern Period History of Dehradun, Garhwal; Medieval History of Haridwar ; South Asian Early Modern Period History of Manglaur, Haridwar; South Asian Early Modern Period History of Rurkee Haridwar ; South Asian Early Modern Period History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Early Modern Period History of Haridwar district to be continued