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Friday, August 22, 2014

History of Joshiyana in Kumaon and Effects on Garhwal

History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -409

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

                    Rise of Joshis in Kumaon
            The administrators and other Influencing Joshi of Chand Kingdom were with Mahar Group in Almora.
        Shiv Datt Joshi was commander of Bhabhar and later Kumaon King Kalyan Chandra Shifted Shiv Datt Joshi to Almora. Hari Ram Joshi became the governor of Bhabhar –Tarain.
      When Kalyan Chand was ailing and knew about his nearby death, Kalyan Chandra took oath from Shiv Datt Joshi to protect minor prince Deep Chandra. After death of kalian Chandra, Shiv Datt Joshi became guardian of Deep Chandra and was looking after Kingdom too. There was a friendly agreement between Kumaon King Kalyan Chandra and Garhwal King Pradip Shah that prince Deep Chandra would treat Pradip Shah as his uncle. However, Shiv Datt Joshi ignored Pradip Shah and Pradip Shah was annoyed with Shiv Datt Joshi.
  Shiv Datt Joshi dismissed Hari Ram Joshi from the post of Governor of Kahsipur (Bhabhar –Tarain). Hari Ram Joshi became annoyed with Shiv Datt Joshi and became part of Fartyal Group that was opposite of Mahar Group in Kumaon. Fartyal Group was totally against Shiv Datt Joshi. Atkinson mentioned the governor of Tarain as Jay Krishna Joshi while Maularam mentioned as Hari Ram Joshi.  Hariram Joshi or Jay Krishna Joshi was ambitious to take the place of Shiv Datt Joshi.
 A man called Jaya Nand Joshi of Kumaon was taking shelter under Pradip Shah in Shrinagar. Kalyan Chandra took eyes of Kantu Joshi of Jhinjhad. His son Jaya Nand Joshi escaped and came to Shrinagar.
 Jay Krishna or Hari Ram Joshi met Pradip Shah with jaya Nand Joshi in Shrinagar . Both the Joshis made Pradip Shah understand that since, Fartyal Group was against Shiv Datt Joshi Garhwal King should attack on Kumaon.
           Garhwal Attacking on Kumaon
  Joshis misled Garhwal King Pradip Shah that as soon he would reach the border of Kumaon, the Fartyal group (opposing Shiv Datt Joshi) would welcome Garhwal King along with subjects of Kumaon.
 Pradip Shah marched towards Kumaon for attack. Pradip Shah reached at Juniyagarh with one lakh soldiers. Kumaon King and Shiv Datt Joshi camped at Naithana of Palla Daura.
  Pradip Shah was waiting for many days for Fartyal group and elites of Kumaon. However, Fartyal group had treaty with Shiv Datt Joshi for the time being. Shiv Datt Joshi called Hari Ram Joshi and appointed him minister (Bakshi). Therefore he left Pradip shah and settled in Kumaon.
 According to Maularam, Shiv Datt adulterated the Garhwal minister (from Khas Group who were against commander Narpat Singh Guleriay ) by heavy gifts.
                         Treaty Discussion

  Shiv Datt sent his ambassador to Pradip Shah for knowing the reason of Garhwal King attacking Kumaon. Pradip Shah sent his advocate Dharni Dhar Ojha. Ojha explained that since Deep Chand is a nephew for Pradip Shah, Deep Chandra should have sent letter to Pradip Shah. Pradip Shah also kept a condition that Ram Ganga River would be permanent boundary for Kumaon and Garhwal.
    According to Atkinson, Shiv Datt accepted the condition for Ram Ganga as boundary for Garhwal and Kumaon but refused understanding Deep Chandra as nephew of Pradip Shah.
    According to Maularam, Shiv Datt Joshi accepted that Deep Chandra would be called nephew of Garhwal King. However, Shiv Datt refused Ram Ganga River as permanent boundary between Kumaon and Garhwal. Shiv Datt Joshi offered various gifts to Ojha. Ojha did not accept the gifts from Shiv Datt Joshi.
Ojha put the supporting points of Kumaon before Pradip Shah. Pradip Shah doubted that Ojha got gifts from Shiv Datt.
                          Betrayal by Garhwal Ministers

  Maularam wrote that Shiv Datt sent ample gifts for Garhwal ministers. They suggested Garhwal King Padip Shah to return back from Juniya Garh. Pradip Shah and Narpati Singh Gulariay were not ready to go back from Juniyagarh with any gain.
  Khas group was against commander Guleriya. Khas group sent message to Shiv Datt Joshi to attack on Garhwal and Khas group would help Kumaon army.
                                      Tamdhaundh Battle
  Shiv Datt Joshi sent his army to attack on Garhwal camp. Garhwal Army commander Narpat Singh Guleriya fought with Kumaon army and defeated Kumaon army. Kumaon army started running back. Narpat Guleriya followed them.Khas group took Garhwal King Pradip Shah towards Shrinagar. Khas group did not send food and ammunition for Guleriya. Kumaon army and Garhwal army had war in Tamdhaundh. Kumaon army defeated Garhwal army. Kumaon army killed Narpat Guleriya. 

                  Protection of Garhwal King
  Kumaon army followed Garhwal Army that was taking Pradip Shah back to Shrinagar. The elites of Garhwal ran away instead of protecting their King Pradip Shah. At one point Garhwal King was surrounded by Kumaon army. Tow Hudkiyas –father and son fought with Kumaon army to protect Garhwal King Pradip Shah. Kumaon army killed two Hudkiyas (drum players). However, in the mean time, Pradip Shah got chance to run away from the difficult position. By many difficulties Garhwal King reached to Shrinagar. Kumaon army looted the ammunition and food of Garhwal Kingdom.
 Later on Kumaon King Deep Chandra offered a copper inscription to Shiv Datt Joshi. Dep Chand wrote on inscription that Kumaon betrayed Kumaon and invited Pradip Shah to attack on Kumaon. Pradip Shah came with three and half (3.5) lakhs soldiers. Shiv Datt Joshi fought without any greed for Kumaon. Shiv Datt Joshi defeated Garhwal army.
 Jaya Nand or Jai Krishna Joshi was also captured in the battle by Kumaon army.
As far as numbers of Garhwal soldier are concerned the numbers would not be in lakhs as the total male population was not in lakhs in Garhwal.
 Deep Chandra offered copper inscription to Shiv Datt Joshi on June 1755. It means the Tamdhaundh battle would have happened before 1755. Bhaktdarshan suggested the date as 1748.

                          Result of Tamdhaundh Battle
  Pradip Shah was insulted in this battle. He was annoyed with his ministers who betrayed him. He put him into palace and had treaty with Kumaon and neighboring Kingdoms.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com22/8/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -410
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
Notes on South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  SouthAsian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued