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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Tuesday, February 3, 2015

Terror some Effects of Gorkha Expansion on Kumaon and Garhwal

History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -23
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -542

                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

  The Gorkha rule expansion in Nepal stories, facts and overrated facts were reaching to Kumaon and Garhwal. The stories about cruel methodologies applied by Gorkha force for capturing the Kingdoms of Nepal and terrorizing acts for suppressing the common people by Gorkha army were well known in Kumaon and Garhwal. The rulers and army commanders of Kumaon and Garhwal and Himachal were feeling heat. Those terror stories were creating fear, terror and surprise among rulers and administrators in Kumaon, Garhwal, Bareli and other parts.
                     Kumaon Chand King Mohan Chand having Treaty with Gorkha King

               When Gorkha Kings were expanding their territories in Nepal, Kumaon and Garhwal Kingdoms were facing internal disputes, internal conflicts and many other external disturbances too. In 1786, Mohan Chand defeated Pradyuman Shah in Paligaon battle and Pradyuman Shah had to flee Shrinagar. Harsh Dev Joshi had to take asylum in Shri Nagar. There was huge influence of Joshis and supporters related to Harsh Dev Joshi on common Kumaunis and elites. Mohan Chand was aware that Joshi clans would not permit him to rule Kumaon peacefully. Mohan Chand required external help and support to balance the power of Joshis. Kumaon King Mohan Chand contacted Gorkha Kingdom Regent Bhadur Shah.
           There was a freindly treaty (Dharmptra exchange) between Gorkha King Ran Bhadurshah Bahadur Shamsherjang and Kumaon King Mohan Chand witnessing Dieties Lakshmi Narayan, Badrinath, Kedarnath and Shrikalika in January 1788. The treaty was in Sanskrit stating that the friends of Kumaon would be friends of Grokha and foes of Kumaon would be foes for Grokha and friends of Gorkha would be friends of Kumaon and foes of Gorkha would be foes of Kumaon.(Bhandari- Nepal ko Aitihasik Vivechan page 202).
                  Disturbances in Shrinagar Garhwal

            Pradyuman Shah ruled Kumaon from 1781-84. Now, Kumaon King Mohan Chand was always fearful that Pradyuman Shah would try to capture Kumaon crown from him. Therefore, Mohan Chand had friendship with younger Parakram Shah the younger brother of Pradyuman Shah. After Paligaon battle,  the supporters of Mohan Chand and Parakram Shah argued that since Pradyuman Shah and Harsh dev Joshi were defeated now Mohan Chand was Kumaon King and Parakram Shah was Garhwal King.
         Parakram Shah appointed his own army in Shrinagar and Pradyuman Shah appointed his own army to balance Parakram. There were groups among administrators supporting two power centers. The situation was of civil war in Shrinagar Garhwal around 1788 when Mohan Chand had treaty with Gorkha King.

** Read more about Gorkha King Ran Bahadur in next chapter….
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com28/1/2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -543
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
History of Gorkha Rule in Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh;