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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Wednesday, May 6, 2015

Weakening of Bhotiya Trades, Huniya Trades in Garhwal in Gurkha/Gorkha Period

Gurkha/Gorkha Ignoring Commerce Development in Garhwal and Kumaon -4

History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal - 47
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -110    
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -631
                          By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

          The trade in North -West of Garhwal was normal. The important trade by Bhotiya with Tibet (Hun Des) was important for all including administration.
           Neeti and Mana Valley Bhotiya traders used to bring various articles from Tibet for Garhwal citizens and they used to take goods from Garhwal for Tibetans.
 Mana where Bhotiya lived was under Badrinath Temple land and Gorkha could not take tax from Bhotiya traders. Therefore the earning for Gurkha administration was from trade between Tibet and Garhwal in Neeti valley.
               Import from Tibet to Garhwal
  Bhotiya of Garhwal used to import articles from Tibet for Garhwal as-Salt, Boxite, Gold dust, Wool, Wollen Goods, Kasturi or musk dust, Chanvar, Sheep, Horses, Goats, Medicines and medicinal herbs and gems. They used to bring items in summer season from Tibet. Bhotiya Businessmen used to sell those items in whole of Garhwal till Nazibabad. Bhotiya Traders used to transport items on horses or sheep. Sheep was very essential mode of transport till 1962 in Garhwal and Tibet.
              Export from Garhwal to Tibet
     Bhotiya businessmen used to sell above produces and used to buy grains from Nagpur region for selling in Tibet. A few Bhotiya Businessmen used to tour Nazibabad for Gud , Sugar and other needful items for Tibet.
 Gurkha administrators increased levy on Bhotiya Trade in Neeti valley and the business came down due to heavy taxation.
                       Huniya of Sutlej Valley
 The traders of Extreme North Sutlej valley were called Huniya. They were intermediates of Tibet near Himachal and Garhwal. They used to bring items on sheep and goats to Shrinagar and used to buy grains in exchange. Huniya has dealers in Mana and Neeti for trade exchanges. Garhwal Kings did not levy tax on Huniya Businesses. However, Gurkha administrators started taking tax and Huniya of Himachal stopped coming to Shrinagar.
 By 1808, the trade between Tibet and Garhwal became practically zero. (Asia Research Journal, vol -11 page 498)

*** This chapter References –
Moorcroft, Travels in Hindustan Atkinson
 Trail, Sketches of Kumaon 
John Premble, Invasion of Nepal: John Company at war
English Pre Mutiny Records, Kumaon 1816
Garhwal Settlement Reports
** Most of references and details were taken from Dr Dabral

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com6/5//2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -632
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter 

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX
                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of a Five Years Residence at Nepal Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti

XXX
History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon, Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Sirmour Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Kangara Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Baghat Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Punar Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Nahan Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, History Himachal; 
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas; Gurkha/Gorkha ka Kumaon par  Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal,