History analysis of Cash Crops in Garhwal and Kumaon in Gurkha/Gorkha Period
Gurkha/Gorkha Ignoring Commerce Development in Garhwal and Kumaon -2
History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal - 45
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -108
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -629
By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)
Kumaoni and Garhwali farmers needed cash crops for various purposes especially for salt, Gud, clothing, wage payment and tax payment. However, neither Garhwali King nor Gurkha paid attention on smooth trade facilities that cash crop is sold or exported.
Poppy was grown in Bhagirathi Valley of Tehri –Uttarkashi Garhwal. Farmers used to produce Opium by poppy seeds. The Opium of Bhatwadi region was called the Best Opium. Farmers also eat opium raw seeds and used as spice too.
Hemp was another cash crop that British Factory of Kahsipur used to buy and the hemp clothing was also bought by Sadhis in Pilgrim Raods.
Cotton was grown in Bhagirathi Valley and Salan Region. Cotton was used for local demand only. Cotton was always imported in Garhwal and Kumaon.
Forest produces was also sold for export but mainly wood.
Turmeric, Ginger was farmed for export or cash crop too.
Dr Dabral mentions that Red Chilies were also produced for cash crop. Vasco da-Gama is called who brought Red Chilly in India in 1598. No historical details are available how Chilies reached to Garhwal, Kumaon and when Chilies became household products. British did experimentations on growing such crops of American Origins as Amaranths, Groundnuts, Potato and Chilies etc.
*** This chapter References –
Moorcroft, Travels in Hindustan Atkinson
Trail, Sketches of Kumaon
John Premble, Invasion of Nepal: John Company at war
English Pre Mutiny Records, Kumaon 1816
Garhwal Settlement Reports
** Most of references and details were taken from Dr Dabral
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, firstname.lastname@example.org/5//2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -630
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of a Five Years Residence at Nepal Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti
History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon, Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Sirmour Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Kangara Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Baghat Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Punar Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Nahan Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, History Himachal;
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas; Gurkha/Gorkha ka Kumaon par Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas; Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Himachal,
History Crossing Rivers in Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon and Pauri Garhwal in Gurkha Period; History Crossing Rivers in Nainital Kumaon and Chamoli Garhwal in Gurkha Period; History Crossing Rivers in Almora Kumaon and Rudraprayag Garhwal in Gurkha Period; History Crossing Rivers in Champawat Kumaon and Tehri Garhwal in Gurkha Period; History Crossing Rivers in Bageshwar Kumaon and Uttarkashi Garhwal in Gurkha Period; History Crossing Rivers in Pithoragarh Kumaon and Dehradun Garhwal in Gurkha Period;
Cash Crops in Dehradun Garhwal and Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; Cash Crops in Pauri Garhwal and Nainital Kumaon in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; Cash Crops in Chamoli Garhwal and Almora Kumaon in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; Cash Crops in Rudraprayag Garhwal and Champawat Kumaon in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; Cash Crops in Tehri Garhwal and Bageshwar Kumaon in Gurkha/Gorkha Period; Cash Crops in Uttarkashi Garhwal and Pithoragarh Kumaon in Gurkha/Gorkha Period;