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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Monday, May 11, 2015

Nrityadhyaya: First Drama related Sanskrit Literature of Garhwal

(History and Study of Sanskrit Literature Development in Garhwal-2)

                           By: Bhishma Kukreti

  Nrityadhyaya is about one aspect of Dramaturgy and that is dance and body language in drama. It seems the remaining part of book are either lost or writer could not complete balance part about drama science and art. The episode suggests that the Book was bigger and more descriptive than Bharat Natyashastra.
             Garhwal had been contributing for Sanskrit Literature development for centuries. Maharaja Sayaji University, Baroda, Gujrat Museum (Gaykavad Oriental Granthamala) had a manuscript of ‘Nrityadhaya’ created by Ashokamall. Shri B J Sandesar Chief Editor and Mrs Dr Priyabala Shah editor brought the said manuscript in limelight (1963).  The said work was published with Hindi translation by eminent scholar Vachaspati Gairola, Sanvartika Prakashan , Allahabad., 1969 , 502 pages. The book is available on Internet too (scribd.com/doc/2295507883/Ashok-Kamal-s-Nrityadhyaya-Vachaspati-Gairola).  There are 108 Dance line drawing in Gairola’ book.
                          Creator Ashokmall
              The creator of Nrityadhyaya mentioned about his name in Shloka 564, 945, 1018, 1064, 1077 and 1272. The creator of Nrityadhyaya also mentioned himself as ‘Ashoken Prithvieendren, Ashokmallen Bhubhuja, Ashokmllo Nripagrani, Nripaashokmallen. The creator of Nrityadhyaya mentioned him as Shriman and Vidushacharah etc. He mentioned that he was son of Veer Singh.
 Those mentions suggest that Ashokmall was a king. He did not mention about the territory he governed .
 However, in the history, there had been only one King Ashokmall or Ashokchalla the King of Doti, Kumaon and Garhwal. There are five six inscriptions available about Ashokmall or Ashokchalla (Dr. S.P Dabral Uttarakhand ka Itihas part -1, page 398). That shows that the creator of ‘Nrityadhyaya’ was Ashokmall (Ashokchalla) the King of Old Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Doti).
Ashokmall ruling time is in twelfth century (1176-1191 ) and Dr Gairola wrote that nothing is available about Ashokmall. Dr Gairola mentions that Granth is of thirteenth –fifteenth century. Dr gairola stated that nothing is known about historical aspect of King Ashokmall. That clearly shows that Gairola did not come in contact in touch of Dr. S.P Dabral. Not, Gairola was aware about inscriptions related to Ashokmall.

                    Fine Description about Dance in Drama

  There are 1730 Shlokas in Nrityadhyaya and divided into 15 chapters. Each chapter is divided into sub chapters.
 The chapters in Nrityadhyaya are-
1-Hast
2-Ang-Pratyang
3-Drishti
4-Upang
5-Hast Prachar
6-Vichitrabhinaya
7-Vartna
9-Chalan
10-Sthanak
11-Nrityakaran
12-Utpalutikarno
13-Anghar Rechak Mandal
14-Lasyang
15-Kalas Karan
 There is no prayer at the beginning of Granth and also ending is not as per Sahstra custom. Even, there is no information of first Shloka or ending Shloka of Granth. That shows that this Granth is only one chapter of Dramaturgy.
 The creator of Nrityadhyaya submitted the older dermatologists as-
Muni- (344, 396,418430, 834, 867. 868,881,1421,14390
Bharat Muni( 560, 705, 875)
Tandu ( 783)
Vaysunu(714)
 It seems that at the time of Ashokmall /Ashokchalla, there was a prominent Dramaturgy scholar Acharya Kohal as Ashokmalla mentioned his name thrice (517, 722, 1082).
Ashokmall mentioned his predessor drama specialist names as  Kirtidhar (Drama art specialist in 293, 297,729 and 1241)) and Learned Drama scholar Abhinavgupta as Bhatt (601)or Bhattabhinavgupta(908)
Ashokmall mentioned various drama principles of past scholars before his time. That shows the creator of this Grantha was well versed with various Drama Granth written in past. (For full list please refer Vachaspati  Gairola).  

    The Shlokas are in simple style and easily understandable.

The Granth is priceless heritage of Dramaturgy in India.



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 9/5/15, Mumbai, India
History of Sanskrit Literature Development in Garhwal to be continued in next part
                         Main Sources
1-Dr Prem Datt Chamoli, Garhwal Ki Sanskrit Sahitya ko Den, Dehradun, India
2- Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas (12 Khand), Dogadda, Garhwal, India
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Notes on History and Study Sanskrit Literature Development in Garhwal, Uttarakhand; History and Study Sanskrit Literature Development in Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand; History and Study Sanskrit Literature Development in Chamoli Garhwal, Uttarakhand; History and Study Sanskrit Literature Development in Rudraprayag Garhwal, Uttarakhand; History and Study Sanskrit Literature Development in Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand; History and Study Sanskrit Literature Development in Uttarkashi Garhwal, Uttarakhand; History and Study Sanskrit Literature Development in Dehradun, Garhwal, Uttarakhand; History and Study Sanskrit Literature Development in Haridwar, Garhwal, Uttarakhand; History and Study Sanskrit Literature Development in Garhwal, Uttarakhand, Himalaya; History and Study Sanskrit Literature Development in Garhwal, Uttarakhand, North India;
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First Drama related Sanskrit Literature in Garhwal, First Drama related Sanskrit Literature in Garhwal, Uttarakhand, First Drama related Sanskrit Literature in Garhwal, Uttarakhand, Himalaya, First Drama related Sanskrit Literature in Garhwal, Uttarakhand, North India, First Drama related Sanskrit Literature in Garhwal, Uttarakhand India, First Drama related Sanskrit Literature in Garhwal, Uttarakhand, South Asia, India Drama Art and Science related Literature;