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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Friday, May 15, 2015

History: State Income from Different Taxes in Garhwal, Kumaon in Gurkha Rule

 History: Economical Administration of Garhwal, Kumaon in Gurkha Rule -3
History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal - 52
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -115    
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -636
                          By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)


             Pungadi Kar (land Tax) collected in Gurkha Rule
   According to report in Garhwal Settlement report, B. D. Pande, Tehri Records, and Williams; the tax in Garhwal was as under-
Region------------------------------------------------Income in Gurkha rupees
Gangawar (Pauri, Chamoli, Rudraprayag) -           82409
Gangapar (Tehri, Uttarkashi) ------------------------- 60750
Doon (Barring Jaunsar –Babar, present Dehradun -----11472
Total------------------------------------------------------------154628
The other tax as Najrana, tand, Ghikar, Addhanni daftari , Mijhari etc was 10 percent of total tax.
                         Salami or Salamya Tax
  Salami or Salamya tax was Najrana tax and the rate was not defined as –
Region --------------Pungadi Tax -------------------Salami-Najrana Tax-------------%
Kumaon ---------------85525---------------------------- 27525----------------------------30.08 (Pande)
Gangawar -------------82406------------------------------1147-----------------------------1.04(Trail)
            Pande points out  that ‘Salami’ tax was that was offered to officers as ‘Najrana’. There is no mention of Salami or Salqmya tax in the records of Dhangu Kamin (Thakur Awatar Singh Rawat ‘s  personal library). There is a tax- ‘Teeka Bhent’ in Dhangu Kamin record and Dhangu Kamin paid that tax to Gurkha officer (Dhangu Garshya) in 1805, 1807 and 1809). Most of the records of Dhangu Kamin were destroyed and don’t had details of other years.
 There was freedom for Gurkha regional officers to get ‘Najrana’ tax and officers levied many tax under the umbrella of Najrana-
A Faujdar ki Timasi- Faujdar or Gurkah officers used to collect Timasi (one third of rupee) from villages. In 1808, Gurkha officer collected Faujdar ki Timasi from 30 villages of Dabralsyun as 54 Timasi (Gurkha Rs 13.50) (Thokdar Awatar Singh Rawat’s personal library)
B Subedar ki Doni (Duanni)- Doni means two anas. Dabralsyu’s Dhangu Kamin collected Doni from above villages and paid to Gurkha officer.
 In 1811, Bhandari and Dashrath Khatri fixed Doni tax as follows
Class of village ---------Dastur for high ranked Officer ----Dastur for Faujdar
First class------------------ 1 rupee------------------------------------------ eight ana
Second class----------------twelve ana-------------------------------------- four ana
Third class ------------------- eight ana---------------------------------------two ana
Fourth class---------------------four ana--------------------------------------one ana
  However, officers used to take Timasi too for getting more income for them. There was no record kept for Timasi in Gurkha officer record.

**One rupee means sixteen anas
*(Dastur means Gift )



** Most of references and details were taken from Dr Dabral

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com15/5//2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -637
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter 

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX
                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of a Five Years Residence at Nepal Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti

XXX
History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Sirmour Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Kangara Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Baghat Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Punar Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand;  Nahan Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Himachal; 
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas; Gurkha/Gorkha ka Kumaon par  Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal,
Xx
History: State Income from different Taxes in Garhwal, Kumaon in Gurkha Rule; History: State Income from different Taxes in Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon in Gurkha Rule; History: State Income from different Taxes in Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon in Gurkha Rule; History: State Income from different Taxes in Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon in Gurkha Rule; History: State Income from different Taxes in Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon in Gurkha Rule; History: State Income from different Taxes in Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon in Gurkha Rule;  History: State Income from different Taxes in Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon in Gurkha Rule;