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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Monday, May 4, 2015

History Crossing River Means in Kumaon and Garhwal in Gurkha Period

History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal - 43
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -106    
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -627
                          By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

    Garhwali King erected Iron wire bridges on a few Rivers at strategic places. Those iron wired bridges got destroyed before Gorkha/Gurkha invasion. There were Sanga (bridge made by Rope and wood plates) and Jhule (grass Rope Bridge) in Garhwal Kings Period for crossing rivers. Most of rope and wood plate bridges were also used in Gurkha/Gorkha Period.
 In Shrinagar, for crossing Alaknanda River reaching to Ranihat, people used Jhula Bridge and Donga Boat (Round made by Bamboo or Bheemal Sticks). In Fulchatti (conference of Hinwal and Ganga)  too, Donga were used for crossing Ganga between Pauri Garhwal and Tehri Garhwal. In Banghat (conference of Purvi Nayar and pashchmi Nayar Rivers), Donga were used for crossing in rainy season.
 There was Sanga Bridge in Wangtoo, Himachal when Gurkha invaded Himachal region.
 Gurkha also retained the system of contracting Thekedar for maintain Jhula and Donga. Those contractors used to get grains from prescribed villages and payment from river crossers. Contractors used to pay taxes to Gurkha government.  


*** This chapter References –
Moorcroft, Travels in Hindustan Atkinson
 Trail, Sketches of Kumaon 
** Most of details were taken from Dr Dabral

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com2/5//2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -628
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter 

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX
                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of a Five Years Residence at Nepal Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti

XXX
History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon, Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Sirmour Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Kangara Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Baghat Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Punar Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Nahan Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, History Himachal; 
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas; Gurkha/Gorkha ka Kumaon par  Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal,
Xx
History Crossing Rivers in Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon and Pauri Garhwal in Gurkha Period; History Crossing Rivers in Nainital Kumaon and Chamoli Garhwal in Gurkha Period; History Crossing Rivers in Almora Kumaon and Rudraprayag Garhwal in Gurkha Period; History Crossing Rivers in Champawat Kumaon and Tehri Garhwal in Gurkha Period; History Crossing Rivers in Bageshwar Kumaon and Uttarkashi Garhwal in Gurkha Period; History Crossing Rivers in Pithoragarh Kumaon and Dehradun Garhwal in Gurkha Period;