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Friday, May 15, 2015

Pungadi Kar or Farm/ Land Tax in Garhwal in Gurkha Period

Economical Administration of Garhwal, Kumaon in Gurkha Rule -2
History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal - 51
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -114    
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -635
                          By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

  Gurkha needed money for campaign for winning Himachal and west India. Gurkha administration increased taxation up to that extent that many families migrated to plains of India. Gurkha needed minimum of Rs three lakhs for maintaining the administration. Gurkha were cruel in collecting taxes.
                            Pungadi Kar or Land Tax
  Pungadi means farm.  At initial stage only, Gurkha increased land tax very high that there was no scope for further increase.
  Bahadur Bhandari and Dashrath Khatri divided land according to fertility as-
Abal- Top class land
Dom- Second grade
Som – third grade land
Chahar – fourth grade
Sunkhbasi – infertile or dry land
 Gurkha decided tax as per fertility for each village. Kamin or Sayana used to collect tax from farmers or Jamindar (jimdar). Central Gurkha administration did not have exact details of fertility but Kamin or Sayana and farmers knew exact fertility.
 The regional head (Garkha) of Dhangu kept tax provision for Rs 703. 50 for Dabralsyun Patti (Thokdar Awtar Singh Rawat’s private collection shown to Dr Dabral). The tax provision for Two villages Kuntani and Gauli for year 1812 was as follows-
 Shri Ram : 1
Sanvat 1869 ka sal Dhangu Garshya Dabrasyun ki
                                      Asul Jama Rupya – 703.50
Galigaun 1 ghar rupya --------------------------------------Kuntani Gaun          1
Gangu Sayano Abal   - 3------------------------------------Heema Sayano Abal –2.50
Sheema Sem ----------00.75------------------------------- Budhi Sem ------00.75 (III)
 Sekar Sukvansi --- two anna -----------------------------Jatru Chahar ----- eight ana
Dhani Chahar ---------- eight ana --------------------------Banchu Auji Abal -----Eight ana
Nath ko Ghar abal------- one rupee and four ana ------Bhajda Sem – four ana
Chanu Chahar – four ana
Tulya Dom abal ---- four ana
              Rs 6  and fifteen ana ------------------------------------------Rs four and eight ana
 Most probably there was tax one rupee per Bee Nali (According to seed consumption pattern ). British kept same taxation till 1957.




** Most of references and details were taken from Dr Dabral

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com14/5//2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -636
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter 

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX
                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of  Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of a Five Years Residence at Nepal Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti

XXX
History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Sirmour Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Kangara Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Baghat Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Punar Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand;  Nahan Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Himachal; 
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas; Gurkha/Gorkha ka Kumaon par  Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal,