History Discussion on Gurkha/Gorkha Administration in Garhwal - 44
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -107
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -628
By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)
Commercial Food Grains of Garhwal and Kumaon in Gurkha/Gorkha period
Commonly, people used to take food grains as –different millets, and coarse grains. Dr Dabral mentions Maize too. However, this author’s opinion is that Maize and Amaranth would have not been so popular by that time. Besides food grains, people used to depend on forest produces as bark, roots, shoots and leaves, seeds buds etc. People used to boil the mentioned forest items with Chanch/Butter Milk or other curry materials.
People used to grow rice and wheat for paying tax. Taxes were taken in money and as well by grains.
People used to take wheat rice and other cash crops in Kandi/bamboo Baskets, on horses and used to travel more than forty fifty miles to sell such items. People used to sell those items in Wholesale Markets as-Bhabhr , Nazibabad, Chattis of pilgrim highways, fairs. People used to get one rupee for twenty five Ser Wheat (around 25 Kilos) in Haridwar.
In Ruhelkhand Mandi (Nazibabad), seller used to get one rupee for twenty Five Ser Wheat.
The rate of rice in Badrinath was one third rupee for two and half Ser rice and one rupee for Seven Ser Rice.
In Almora, the rate of 32 Ser Wheat was one Farukhabadi rupee. In interior of Garhwal, the rate of 100 Ser of Wheat was one rupee. The Gurkha administrators used to apply tactics not to increase rate for grains.
The Salan people used to visit Nazibabad, Bhabhar, Haridwar, and Dehradun to sell their grains. The farmers of Upper Garhwal used to sell grains to Bhotiya traders. Bhotiya Traders used to sell grains in Tibet and used bring salt to sell in Garhwal.
*** This chapter References –
Moorcroft, Travels in Hindustan Atkinson
Trail, Sketches of Kumaon
John Premble, Invasion of Nepal: John Company at war
English Pre Mutiny Records, Kumaon 1816
Garhwal Settlement Reports
** Most of references and details were taken from Dr Dabral
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, firstname.lastname@example.org/5//2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -629
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886 , Gazetteer of Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of a Five Years Residence at Nepal Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti
History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon, Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Sirmour Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Kangara Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Baghat Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Punar Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Nahan Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, History Himachal;
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas; Gurkha/Gorkha ka Kumaon par Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas; Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Himachal,
History Crossing Rivers in Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon and Pauri Garhwal in Gurkha Period; History Crossing Rivers in Nainital Kumaon and Chamoli Garhwal in Gurkha Period; History Crossing Rivers in Almora Kumaon and Rudraprayag Garhwal in Gurkha Period; History Crossing Rivers in Champawat Kumaon and Tehri Garhwal in Gurkha Period; History Crossing Rivers in Bageshwar Kumaon and Uttarkashi Garhwal in Gurkha Period; History Crossing Rivers in Pithoragarh Kumaon and Dehradun Garhwal in Gurkha Period;