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Sunday, August 14, 2016

Hoon/Tibet Tax on Indian Bhotiyas

 British Administration in Garhwal   -19         
       -
History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -35
            History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -873
-
                              By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)

        Bhotiyas used to pay taxes to Tibetan kings (Hoon des in Uttarakhandi languages) in Garhwal Kings and Gurkha period too. Bhotiyas could not get freedom from paying tax to Tibetan rulers even in strong British rule.
            Indian Bhotiyas had to visit Tibet for export and import business in summer season. Therefore, taking export and import tax by Tibet administration from Indian Bhotiyas was valid and logical too.  However, Tibet (Hoon) rulers used to collect land taxes from Bhotiyas that land was under British. Traill wrote that (Atkinson page 124) since, as per folklores, Bhotiyas migrated from Hoon (Tibet) to Uttarakhand border regions Hoon (Tibet) rulers used to collect taxes from Bhotiyas.
  Since, the capital of Katyuris was in Joshimath that means Bhotiya region was under Katyuris.  When Katyuri kingdom was divided or weakened forever, Tibetans started attacking on Uttarakhand border regions and when Bhotiyas settled in Garhwal and Kumaon, Tibetan (Hun) took granted that that region was under Tibet rule (Hoon).  Garhwal Kings of Garhwal and Chand Kings of Kumaon took actions and brought Bhotiya regions under their respective Kingdoms. Bhotiyas had to business with both the territories (Tibet and Garhwal Kingdom and Kumaon Kingdoms-Chand and Katyuri). Therefore, Bhotiyas used to pay taxes both the rulers.
  Neeti Valley Bhotiyas used to pay following taxes to Hoon (Tibetan) administration-
‘Simh Thal’ or Land Revenue - the tax from Tibet (Hun) administration was low and was collected per Kaunch (land measuring unit).
‘Ya Thal’ ( Ghamtappi Tax) or tax on sun shines- Perhaps it is related to (Asiatic Research vol. 17,pages 26- 27) migration by Bhatia. ‘Gham tappi’ means sun bath. Tibetan officer ‘Sarji’ from Jaungpun region used to visit early summer and used to collect this tax in the form of Khamir’ /dried yeast cake.
‘Kiun Thal’- Kyun Thal tax was export –import tax. The tax was taken in the form of wool of a sheep and rate was wool of a sheep after every ten sheep having goods on them.  It means ten percent was criteria. Many times, officers took tax in the form of Gur.
‘Kiun  Kal’- Kyun Kal was tax on cereals brought inside Tibet for sales.
‘Huro or Rakhi’ tax- Sikh Sardar used to take projection money of Neeti Bhotiyas for protecting Bhotiyas Tibetan Dacoits or looters.
Bhotiyas used to collect 10 % tax on Tibetan traders coming to Uttarakhand regions.
‘Thalla’ Tax-  Tax on oats  per round (10-20 KG)
Pugir’ Tax- ‘Pugir’ tax was Rs 3 per 100 goat/sheep
La Thal’ Tax- The tax on crossing river or rivulet was 6 Anna and 6 pai per 100 sheep/goats
Lug-Puch’ tax - The tax on crossing river or rivulet was one Patha on 20 Patha of grains
La –Miuk’ Tax- Traders crossing Dabamandi ,  had to pay entry tax for the region.
 There was difference between tax structure in Mana and Neeti borders.  


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 12/8/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -874
*** History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun, (Pauri, Rudraprayag, and Chamoli) Garhwal (1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX   
References  
 1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page 168-69
2- Atkinson, Himalayan districts vol.3 page 147
Xx
History of British Rule, Administration , Policies, Revenue system,  over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule , Administration , Policies Revenue system  over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system  over Bageshwar  Kumaon, Uttarakhand ;
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;