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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Sunday, August 14, 2016

Bhotiya Region land Settlement

British Administration in Garhwal   -17         
History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -33
            History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -871
                              By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)

          The land revenue settlement in Bhotia regions was exclusive than other Garhwal regions in Garhwal Kingdom and Gorkha regime.  British preferred same old system for Bhotia region. Hamilton described Bhotia regions in details in his book. He described that Bhotia communities migrate from top hill region to lower hill regions in winter season.
          In Garhwal Kings, Chand Kings, the tax on Bhotias was not land tax but import and export duties.  Bhotia used to pay gold dust for taxes. The measuring units for gold dust were in ‘kanch’, ‘tola’, ‘masha’ and ‘rati’. Trail kept unit as ‘kanch’. In Neeti region, unit was ‘dumaula’ (Rs.6) for ‘kanch’. In Garhwal, the land measuring unit was .nali’ and in Bhotia region it was different. A bull pair plowing that land in a day was unit in Bhotia region. There was one rupee tax on that land. Kings used to take more tax as additional tax (license tax).  There was tax on forest produce collectors and sellers, weaving etc.  The records of past kings, show the following tax in Bhotia regions of Kumaon and Garhwal regions-
Valley---------------- Kanch----------------Masha------------ Rati
Kumaon Juhar ----------133----------------- 5------------------- 2
Kumaon Darsa-----------363------------------1------------------- 5
Kumaon Vyas--------------71-----------------9--------------------0
Neeti Garhwal------------- 103 (206Dumaula)
 Mana ganv was for Badrinath temple Gunth.
 Bhotia also used to offer  gifts  (Khini –Khapini) to king families on the occasions as marriage etc. There was business tax on and oabove and Kings did not take Chungi from Bhotia.
      The kings used to spend the tax collected from Bhotia region on army expenditure. Kings used to depute a person for collecting tax and offering judicial services. The government representative used to announce the judgment with the help of Budhon’ (senior person). Budhon ‘used to take care internal administration of the regions.  Gurkha captured Kumaon in 1790 but could capture Jauhr in 1798. Gurkha increased tax on Bhotia regions as –
Neeti valley—Gorkha Rs. 7000
Juhar - Gorkha Rs. 12500
Drama- Gorkha Rs. 10000
Vyas- Gorkha Rs.5000
 Gurkah local administrators used to increase taxes without any logic and it became for Bhotia of both the regions for paying tax. Bhotia left the regions as were unable for paying tax.  Then Nepal court deputed Bhakti for correcting the situation. Bhakti Thapa decided following tax –
Neeti valley—Gorkha Rs. 4700
Juhar - Gorkha Rs. 8000
Drama- Gorkha Rs. 7000
Vyas- Gorkha Rs.2700
The tax payers were free for paying tax in cash  and in materials forms.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 10/8/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -872
*** History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun, (Pauri, Rudraprayag, and Chamoli) Garhwal (1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
 1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page 161- 65
2- Atkinson, Himalayan districts vol.3 page 144
3- Hamilton, 1818, Description of Hindustan vol. 2, page 658
4- Asiatic Researches vol. 16. 3-49
History of British Rule, Administration , Policies, Revenue system,  over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule , Administration , Policies Revenue system  over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system  over Bageshwar  Kumaon, Uttarakhand ;
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;