British Administration in Garhwal -10
History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -26
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -864
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
The families those ran away from their villages in Gurkha Regime started returning back in their native after British rule started. There were land that became wasteland or follow land in Gurkha time. Farmers returned and started correcting the situation. That land was called ’navavad’ (newly occupied). Trail levied lowest possible tax on newly occupied land. In past, Trail levied low tax on land because there was no exact information. When Trail got information about various villages he levied reasonable tax.
British government offered extra land as Padhanchari or Jithauna (Jithauna = elder) to Padhan (village chief) and also offered them nominal commission from tax collection as compensation to Padhans. Trail levied tax on the production assessment of the villages.
The second settlement was for three years. Padhan were unable signing the for agreement (Kaul Karr Patta ) more than three years (Atkinson). The main reason was that farmers used to migrate from one village to other freely. The farmers were less and land was more. Whenever there was human or animal epidemic in the village the villagers used to migrate from that village. In such condition, it was difficult for Padhan for collecting taxes from farmers. There was no provision for tax exemption in Trail period.
There was vast difference between Garhwal and Kumaon from agricultural and non agro land. In Garhwal, agro land was always lesser than non agro land as compared to Kumaon. Therefore, there was less population density in Garhwal than Kumaon. Tax earning in Garhwal was lesser than Kumaon. British spent scanty money in Garhwal than Kumaon for development or services for people. British did not establish army camps, hospitals in Garhwal as British established in Kumaon. British did not pay attention on transport facilities in Garhwal. Therefore, there was no export facilitation from Garhwal. In 1821, the buying rate for wheat was one rupee per twenty ser (app Kilo) and in Garhwal, the wheat selling rate was eighty ser per rupee. There was better situation on Pilgrim rout as farmers could sell their products to pilgrims.
There was demand for hemp in Gurkha regime. British stopped Kashipur hemp fiber factory and there was no demand for hemp fibers too. There was no economic improvement in Garhwal but Trail could increase tax. Slowly, Population increased and people became habitual of stable staying in their villages.
Atkinson offred following tax details in Trail time-
Samvat 1872--- Farukabadi Rs. 37506
Samvat 1873------F. Rs. 44224
Samvat 1874-76------F. Rs. 47828 annual
Samvat 1877-79------F. Rs. 58511
In Samvat 1880 (1823 AD), trail wrote in his report about land settlement that there was less tax collection increase from Shrinagar Garhwal (F Rs. 55600) than Kumaon. Trail explained about less tax collection due to inferior economic condition, bad transportation facilities affecting export from Garhwal.
The first agreement of British government was with ‘Sayanas’ in Nagpur division and second settlement agreement was with village chiefs (padhan).
Till 1822, there was forest taxation system in Patalidun and agreement on yearly basis.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, firstname.lastname@example.org 1/8/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -865
*** History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun, (Pauri, Rudraprayag, and Chamoli) Garhwal (1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page 158-159
2-Atkinson, Himalayan Districts, Vol. 3, page 285-287
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system, over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies Revenue system over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system over Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand;
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand