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Wednesday, May 4, 2011

Classification of Folk Dance-Songs of Garhwal by Dr Shivanand Nautiyal

Classification of Folk Dance-Songs of Garhwal by Dr Shivanand Nautiyal
(Commentary on Garhwal ke Lok Nritya Geet, a Timeless Book on Folk Song-Dance of Garhwal)
Bhishma Kukreti
Late Dr Shivananad Nautiyal is not unknown name in Garhwali folk literature nor unfamiliar in social and political fields of Garhwal. He is famous for collecting , reviewing , publishing and popularizing the folk songs and dances of Garhwal from his youth till his death. When this author bought his timeless , 486 pages book ‘Garhwal ke Loknritya-Geet (Folk Dance -Songs of Garhwal) in 1982 in Hindi language, he was ambitious for reviewing this collector book. However, the book is so comprehensive that even after many trials he could not do so.
It is not easy to write review on great works because each word in such work is very important and it is very difficult to review a work when it is different than conventional ones as the publisher Dr Prem Narayan Shukla of this book writes ,” Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Shri Govind Prasad Nautiyal, Shri Hari Krishna Raturi, ,Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna, Hari Dutt Bhatt Shailesh, Dr Govind Chatak, Shri Mohan Babulkar, Shri Mhaveer Prasad Poddar, Vasant Karnekar, Shri Sant Ram Vatsya, Shri Kalpnath Singh, Shri Jamnudas Akhtar and Tarantaran Dhasahmana and many more wrote brilliantly on social, religious, historical, spiritual, literature, cultural issues and subjects of Himalaya, Garhwal, Uttaranchal and Uttarakhand . But Dr Shiva nand ‘s work in this book is totally different in context and review too. Definitely, Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal choose a different subject that is Folk Dances-songs of Garhwal.
In his Amukhor self expression, Dr Nautiyal says that he got inspiration to write on Folk-Dances-Songs of Garhwal by Dr Vasudev Sharan Agarwal in 1981. From that time, Dr Shiva Nand started extensive research on the subject and could publish this book. There are seven chapters in the book and each part is itself a book in its own.
Introduction of Garhwali Folk Dances-SongsShiva Nand Nautiyal provided many unheard knowledge about Garhwal and its rich heritage and culture in 71 pages introduction.A- Geographical introduction (bhaugolik bhumika): Shiva Nand Nautiyal provides the readers the quotations about geography of Garhwal from Mhabharat, Skandh Puran , Dr T.G.Longstaff, H.W Tilman, . He provides the details in terms of area, population of Dehradun, Uttarakshi, Chamoli Garhwal , Tihri Garhwal and Pauri Garhwal and explains the diverse geographical areas too.B- History of Garhwal From Rig-Veda till date: The area Garhwal had been an important place in Jambodweep (today’s Indian sub continent) at he time of Rig-Veda too. That is the reason the creator describes hundred Garhis (forties of hills) of ashur(primitive) king Shamber in Rig-Veda ( 4-30-20). From king Shamber of Rig-Veda era , Shiva Nand Nautiyal takes us the chronological history of Garhwal via Ram era (Marichi of Ramayan fame), the initiation of generation and storing techniques of fire by Angira in Agelthaili of Garhwal, eras of Kailash, Alkapuri, Devpuri, the prayer by Ravan, arrival of Adi Shankaracharya in 820Ad, arrival of Vaishnavi preacher Madhvacharya in 1153, fifty two Garhs and crowning of Kanakpal the fist king of Panwar dynasty , Gorkha regime (1804-1815), British rule (1815-1947) and independent India. C- Varied dimensions of Garhwali culture (Garhwal ki Sanskriti aur vivid ayam):In this chapter, Shiva Nand Nautiyal provides the quotations of many learned experts for defining culture (Sanskriti) and proves that the culture of Garhwal is the culture of India. Describing the quotations of Vedas, Mahbharat, Purans, and other modern researchers , Shiva nand explains that the culture of Garhwal is influenced and affected by Vedic culture, Janism, Baidhissm, Shaivyas, Vaishnavyas, Ngvansism, Kiratism, Kanturyism, Shaktiism, Smartism, Nathism, Sikhism, and up to certain extent Christianity and Islamic culture if not much. Same way, the art and craftsmanship is also the reflections of varied dimensions that is local invented craftsmanship and science and borrowed from other parts of India and world too. Chronological introduction and development of dance and music in Folkdance and songs in Garhwal (Garhwal ke kok-nritya aur unkse sambaed gee ton ka savexanatmak samyak parichay): Dr nautiyal tells that the folk dance is the life of a nation or region. After explaining and reviewing the aspects of emotions, body performances, dialogue performances, dress-performances, singing performances, Dr Shiva Nand takes the readers on the path of chronological history pf dance-singing origination and development in each important eras of Indian soil and correlate effects of those developments on the developments of folk dance-songs of Garhwal
Dances-songs of Indus valley civilization: Dr Nautiyal asserts that in India, scientific way of dance-songs started from Indus valley civilization and the people of that era were well versed about the importance of acting by body, face, dresses , dialogues (songs), instruments in dance-songs.Dravid civilization: Nautiyal provides the proof from the book Bhartiya Nritya Parampara aur abhnaya darpan by Vachaspati Gairola that Dravadian society had understood and expertise the importance of science, spirituality, rituals, psychology, philosophy, performances in musica and dance in Dance-SongVedic era: The women and men used to dance and sing by taking a tranquilizing liquid (somras) in Vedic Era. The evolutionary step in Vedic era from Dravidian era was that in Vedic era the society added code of conducts, and purity of life.
Bhishma Kukreti makes an opinion that the culture of Lang play badis in Garhwal was started from Vedic era as Nautiyal provides the proof of dances and songs on bamboo ladders in Yajurveda.
Pauranik era: Shiva nad provides plenty of proofs that in Pauranik era, the development of art of dance-song was on its peak.Ramayan Era : The coupling art of dance-singing was common in Ramayan era and Ram was expert of dance-singing.Mahabharata era: The dance-song art was very popular in Mahabharatian era.Jain era: In early Jain literature , there are references of community dance-singingsBudhist era: There are references of inclusion of emotions, spirituality , philosophy in dance-songs in Budhist era except when there was ban on dance-singing in courts of king and administrative executives by Kautilya in Maurya era.Nag era : This is the time when Bharat created Natyashashtra and it is called the golden period of Dance-Song-Drama. Classical Dance: In Nag era, Natyashashtra became the inspiring source of popularization of classical dance and dance-singing in IndiaGupt era: Gupt era is the foremost era in developing and popularizing the art of dance-singing by court and rich peopleRajput era: Rajput, era as the Gupt era is the time when Indian dance-singing developed and became popular too.Islamic era (1000-1290): In this era, the dance-singing took the turn towards erotic version in opposite of purity and spirituality in dance-singing .Moghul era: All the rulers except Aurangzeb patronized dance, singing, dance-song and other arts too. This is the era, when professionalism entered in art of dance and singing. Modern era: Nautiyal supports the quotation of Umesh Joshi that there is decline in this art of dance-song because sophistication and purity are in declining fashion . Nautiyal provides many examples of dance-song being promoted by government agencies and social organizations too
Taxonomy by Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna (1954): Analysis of Garhwali folk songs started by Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna: Dhunyal (1954) is first work of analyzing and classifying the Garhwali Folk Song . Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna classified Garhwali Folk Songs on the following types:
1- Mangal (auspicious songs)
2-Kula char (Introducing and description of family tree)
3-Panwada (praising achievers)
4-Khuded (sad song)
5-Jagar (Awakening songs sung in Ghadela)
6-Tantra Mantra
7-Hori (Humrous and sung at Holi time)
8-Chakhulya (Personification of animals)
9-Naya Geet (New)
The main flaw on this classification is that it is not analyzed on scientific basis but on conventional basis .Classification of Folk Songs by Dr Govind Chatak: Dr Shivanand Nautiyal appreciated the initiation of Dr Govind Chatak for his collection , classification and popularizing Garhwal Folk Songs among Garhwalis and non-Garhwali literate intellectuals and regional language experts. Dr Nautiyal provided the reference of classification of Garhwali folk Songs by Dr Govind Chatak as :
1-Puja geet or songs of praying deities and goddesses
2-Mangal or auspicious songs
3-prem, Rup, Ras or love songs
4-Chhpati
5-Lman
6-Vasanti
7-Bajuband
8-Dampatya jeewan or songs related to family life
9-Khuded geet or sad songs
10-Chhuda
11-Samajik
12-Vividh or others
Dr Govind Chatak divides poetic folklore (Lok Gathayen) into:
1-Jagar Vartayen or religious folk lore
2-Panwade or chivalry folk lore
3-chaiti or love folk loreClassification by Dr Mohan Babulakar: Dr Babular (1967) classified Garhwal Folk Song as below in his famous boo ‘ Garhwali Lok Sahitya ka Vivechanatmak Adhyayan’ :
1-Sanskaron ke geet
2-Devi Devta stuti , Tyoharon ke Geet
3-Khuded geet
4-Ritu (season) and Virah (pain of separation)
5-samuhik Gey geet (group or community songs)
6-Tantra Mantra Geet
7-Laghu geet (short songs)
8-jatiyon ke geet (songs created and sung by specific class)Classification by Dr Hari Datt Bhatt ‘Shalilesh: In his book ‘Garhwali Bhasa aur uska Sahitya’ , (1964)D Bhatt bifurcated the folk songs of Garhwal into following categories:
1-Mangal: k-Awhahan Geet. Kh-Puja geet, G-Vivah Geet, H-Loriyan (very rare),
2-Jhumailo: (sad and Love songs): K-Jhumailo, Kh-Chhopati, G-Laman
3-Thadya ya Vasanti geet 1- Vasnti 2-Hori
4-Bajuband (Rhymical dialogues)
5-Chaufala ( Achieving right objectives, ambitions, economical benefits and final solutions)
6-Khded geet
7-Kulachar
8-Chaumasa (Songs of rainy season)
9-Baramasa (songs for every season)
10-par Updeshatmak (Inspirational)
11- Samayik (Songs of contemporary subject or happenings by Badis)
12-Rashtriya geet (Patriotic songs)
 
 Classification of Dance-Song (Garhwal ke nrityatmak lokgeeton ka sarvexnatmak vargeekaran) : Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal opinioned with logical investigation that the classification of folk dance-song by Govind Chatak another profound expert is insufficient and finds that the classifications by renowned experts of Indian folk songs and dances as Projesh benerji, D Samar, Shyam Parmar , laxmi Narayan Garg do not fit with Garhwali folk dance-songs.
Nautiyal provides opinion that the following classification of Mohan Babulkar is comprehensive but strongly opposes the certain interpretation of Mohan Babulkar about Narsingh, nag raja, Bhairon, Bhagvati, Hntya are individualistic dance- song and not community folk dance-song.
1- Religious Garhwali dance-songs: Babulkar has opinion that only pandav dance-songs come under the category of Religious Garhwali folk Dance-Songs and under this category, arjun, Bhima, Ydhisther, Nakul, Shadev, Kunti draupadi dance-songs could be included
2-Community Folk Dance-Songs by professional class: Bbabulkar classifies this class into Badi-Badan and Lang dances-songs
3-Non Religious Folk Dance-Songs: According to Babulkar, there are two types of dance-songs --Thadya and Chaufula.
In the following lines, Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal provided another logical and scientific classification derived from his earlier classification in 1964. He provides the references that experts as hari datt Bhatt ‘Shailesh‘, A B Bahuguna and Govind ‘Chatak’ support his classification of Garhwali folk dance-songs.
Chapter-2 Religious Dance Folk SongsGarhwal is a place of deities and goddesses and there is every effects of deities, goddesses and their stories on the folk dance-songs , Even , there are emotional- dances songs related to devils, bhut or souls of dead, demons, A-Dance and songs for deities and goddesses: Nagarja, Nirankar, Narsingh, Devi, hanuman, Bhairav, Heet, Ghantakarn, etc are mail dieties and goddesses of Garhwal. The prayer to these deities or goddesses is called ‘Jagar’. The Jagar is combination of singing prayer in exclusive Garhwali tone, music by damaroo (small drum) and bronz thali (plate) and dance by who is supposed to be incarnated by deities/goddess and dancers from audience
Nagarja: Ngarja is common and main deity of Garhwal. Nagarja is Krishna in Garhwal and in these prayers or Jagar, there dance and song related to the life history of Krishna. The form of Krishna in Garhwali Jagar is not found the form of a supernatural but an human ones. There is reference of family tree of Krishna or Nagraja in Garhwali song - Aminag, Faninag,Sisarnag, Bisarnag, tatkinag and vasukinag (father of Krishna) and the birthplace of Krishna is in Seem of Mukhim in Ramola patti of Tihri Garhwal.
Shiva Nand provides examples of many lyrical stories related to life of Krishna as
Jamuna war holo kans ko kans kot, Jamuna par holo gokul bairat
Kanskot holo raja ugarsen, tauki rani holi rani pawanrekha
There are jagar from many aspects of life of Krishna as Rukmain-haran, Chandravali haran, kans badh. However, the most astounding stories in Krishna ‘ Jagar’ is Kusma-Kolin Krishna love story and Sonari-Krishna love story.Both Kolin and Sonari are not from upper caste. These folk song-stories shows the value of deprived class in Garhwali society.
Nirankar: Nirankar is called ‘Bada Devta’ and is nothing but lord Shiva. Though, everybody worships Nirankar but harijan class prays Nirankar through dance-songs (jagar and ghadela) .mostly , the ghadela of Nirnkar is performed at the time of new crop harvesting and always, first cereals are offered to Nirankar. The story of Nirankar-Jagar is related to the desciple of raidas a cobbler who tells the story of Nirakar:
Onkar sad guru prasad , prthame onkar, onkar se fonkar
Fonkar se vayu, vayu se visandari se pani, pani se kamal
……
Nrankar is another form of lord Shiva, therefore, the dance is more vibrant as Shiva dances vibrantly.
Nagilo: Shiva nand says that Nagelo is nag raja and it seems that Nagelo is Krishna. Nagela is the deity of prosperity and fame as is worshiped through this Jagar:
Dyul nagilo ayo jaseelo devta, dyul nagelo ayo bhakton tain deend jas
Dyul nagilo ayo mulak gaye bheo, dyul nagilo ayo Ramoli ko dhati
Narsingh: In Garhwal, Narsingh is not incarnation of lord Vishnu but Narsingh is the disciple of Guru Gorakhnath. There are fifty two brave and Sidh purush which are described in Narsingh’s jagar as
Ijag jagnarsingh beer baba,rupa ko tero sotta jag, fatingo ko tera mudra jag
Dimari rasoya jag, kedari raut jag, nepali tero chimta jag, kharua ko teri jholi jag
There two main forms of Narsingh deity---1-Dondya and 2-Dudho Narsingh
Bharon/Bhairun: Bharon is disciple of lord Shiva and is the deity of defence and protection. Bharon is worshipped at the start of each new work. The music instruments of Bharon Jagar are Dhol, Damau or Daur -Thali and after the start of dancing by males as Bharun , the females in the form of Bharvin also dance. The jagar is as
Tu jagi ja beer bharon, tu jagi ja
Bharun is worshipped to quick away evil spirit from a human being
 
Nanda : Nanda is main deity of Garhwal and Kumaun . Nanda is the family deity of king of Garhwal and that is why she is called Rajrajeshwari devi. Nanda is another name of Parvati the daughter of Himalaya.
In the jagar of Nanda devi , she is normal human being who feels pathos while leaving mother’s place after marriage:
Satedi pungadi matyun ki such apodu jain, …..
Saisur jan ko bela kaiku na ain
There is song for the pain in sasural (in-law’s house) for Nanda as happens for other girls too:
Holo jasi mero holo hyun ko disan, holo jasi mero hyun ko dhikan
……. ……..
Baba ji ko des kya gham lagyunc ha sasura ji ka des boi kya kuedi launkhin cha
There is every year procession of worshiping Nanda Devi is called Nanda Jat yatra
Devi : Devi’s worship through ghadela is performed within individual family and in community too and many folk stories are sung for the ghadela or Mnadan of Devi dance-song:
Palmate thalmate dainta dharni narsingi narayani
…….. ….
Jai bola tero dhyan jaglo, uncha Dhaulagadh tera daint chichi gen jog maya
…….. …….
Ufrain Devi: Dr Nautiyal says that Ufrain Devi is the goddess of fame and is worshipped through musical instruments--Dhol-Damau and jagar by Auji and there is procession performance too .Heet Heet is the disciple of Nrankar and the worship of Nirankar is initiated only after Heet is remembered by dance-song :
Daina hoi jayan mera heetu re ghandyal, baso lhee yalo heetu teena uncha neela kanthu manj
Mamanda Beer: Mamanda beer is the deity of defense and protection and he protects the devotees from devilish spirits and undesired happenings. The jagar of mamonda are full of chivalry :
Kaun des ai jata fikari sau man lubba sangul, kiski pagmudi bandhaun
Au re mera mamanda beer , veg manta teg au
Hanuman : There is important place of Hanuman in Garhwal. The worship of Hanuman through dance-song is very specific as the ‘Paswa’(on whose body the deity enters) dances in bravery and de-roots big bush/tree for putting shrub into fire of Mandan. The Jagaris sing and plays musical instruments (Dhol-Damu) vibrantly.The dance-song-music of worshiping (Jagar) is always full of vibrancy, speedy and brings enthusiasm, chivalry , effervesces, among dancers, audience and in atmosphere as whole.
Jai hanuman veer bajrangi, lanka sadhe, bilanka sadhe
Asurali patan sadhe, jam ko jal sadhe, kal ko fans sadhe
Ghantakarn or Ghandyal: Ghandyal or Ghantakarn is the deity of providing prosperity, protection is supposed to be very powerful deity. Nautiyal informs that in many places, the temple of Ghantakarn or Ghandyal is called ‘Dev dikhani’.The worshiping pf Ghandyal is performed through procession (jat jatra) and worshiping goes for a month Latu Devta: Latu deity is ‘dharambhai’ or brother by friendship of Raj Rajeshwari Nanda devi and before the main worshiping of Nanda Devi, the Latu Devta is worshiped by means of jagar and dance-song of Latu Devta. Latu is the deity of astonishment and requires sacrifice of he goat.Gorila devta: In Kumaon Gorila is called Gol devta and is important as Narsingh. Haru Harpal or Sidh baba: Sidh baba is related to nathsectRaghunath Ji: Nautiyal provides a new knowledge to many Garhwalis that in some area as surrounding Devprayag, there is dance-song for worshiping lord Ram
B- Religious community Dance-Song (Pandaun Nritya)Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal explains that though Pandaun and other dance-songs are as dance-song of Nagrja etc but because apart from worshiping the deities and Devis, these dance-songs are more entertaining in nature, having more of community feeling acts, he segregates this type of dance-songs and excludes from dance-songs related to Nagraja, Nada Jat etc.
In Pandaun Nachan (Pandava Dance ), there are a common factors all over Kumaun and Garhwal. The dance-song is performed in Mandan -a flat community place or country-yard where hundred two hundred dancers may perform and there is sufficient place for audience too. Pandav Nritya is synonym of Kumauni and Garhwali, it is performed any where in carnival, marriage procession or at festival time. When, pandav Nritya is performed, a cap fire is arranged at the centre place of Mandan and dancers dance surrounding the campfire.
Pandav dance-and songs are always, vibrant, with high order of enthusiasm, with chivalry, lyrical, inspirational and bring highest degree of community feeling
The Das (A community who plays musical instruments-Dhol Damau, Sinai and sing mangal too) first worship agni (fire), vastuk, and calls the deities-goddesses through Chauras Baja or Chauras tones for benefits of all. The das sings the stories of Mahbharat, which are adapted or transformed according to Garhwali-Kumauni habits and habitats and this story telling is called ‘ Pandoli’. The das also asks ‘Chal mangan’ means to request dancers for dancing in discipline way and as per the music, story, characters and emotions of the story .
The starting stanzas of Pandav dance-song after deity-goddess worship are :
Pargat hwai jan, pargat hwai jan, pargat hwai jan Kunti mata, pargat hawai jan rani dropata
Konti mata holi padon ki mata, nagon ko bister dedee, bhukon ko ann,
The story has all raptures and emotions -Chivalry, love, pathos, wrath, abhorrence, wonders, laughter, fear etc and make the dance-song attractive to all. There are following dance-songs or of Pandaun dance-songs:
B1-Kunti Baja Nritya-Geet : This dance-song is with full of tenderness, rapture of pathos and sadness of separation. The tone of musical instruments is “ Gija-Gijadi,Gija -Gijadi” .A song starts as
Pragat hwai jan pragat hwai jan, pragat hwai jan panch bhai pandaun
Kunti mata supni hwai ge tachhum tachhum, pandu ka saradh tain chand gaindo tachhum tachhum
B-2-Yudhistar Baja Nritya: the dance and tone of music is always peaceful, happiness, penance in Yudhister bjaa Nritya and the tone of music is “ Jaikta tu Jak, Jaikta Tak’, on which the dancers dance at one place and there is lowest kind of speed in the dance. The song is like:
dharma ka khatir dharma baun geni, dharma ka kahtir taun kasha uthai
Dharma ka avtar hwai dharma yiddisher, jaun ki chhap podin cha sara sansar par
B-3-Bhim Baja Nritya: Bhim is synonym of enthusiasm, bravery, anger, wrath, fear to enemies, speed, wonder and the dance of Bhima Baja is full of rhythms speed, ups and downs, forwardness-backwardness , somehow free for dancers, full of laud chivalry cries of dancers. The tone of music is always fast as “ Gija Gijadi Ghinta, Gija Gijadi Ghinta” . The words are as :
Bala daini hwai jaini teri daini hwai jaini jodha tyari,
partigya ka danI bala, sau man ki gada bala tyaro holu sau man ki dhal
B-4-Arjun Baja Nritya: Arjun is synonym of brevity , agile, wise, focused but always firm and courageous. However, angre when he knows the killing of his son Abhmanyu. The dance initiates slow, with tenderness, dancers perform their act by vibrating their heads according to story and musical tones. At the time of fight by Arju, the dance become vibrant as of Bhim Baja Nritya. Arjun being the central hero of ‘Pandauni’, there tens of rhythms, styles, speeds, bodily performances of dancers, changes in musical tones and total atmosphere of Mandan. The main tone of music is “ Jaikta tu Jadak Jai na Tak .The example of words is:
Krishna ab paeechhe aige he arjun, dekhi taun he arjun, janto bar man vilap he arjun
Jaydrath tai mee mari dyonlu he arjun,nthar suraj duban par bhol he arjun, chita man pdalu he arjun
B-5-Nakul Baja Nritya: The dancers dance at low vibrancy level in Nakul Bjaja Nritya and dance evenly. The sound of Dhol-Damu (drumming) is “ Jaikta tu Jade”
B-6-Sahdev Nritya: The Sahdev Baja dance is sober and with tenderness. The tone or sound of Dhol is “ Tu Jadak Jaikta jai nat”B-6 Abhumanyu Baja Nritya: The dance is combination of chivalry’s vibrancy when Abhimanyu fights with opponents in the story and pathos when Abhimany was killed by Kauravas. B-7 Draupadi Bjaja Dance: The dance and performance is full of love, pathos, tenderness and chivalry too.
In Pandon dance the following aspects are important:
1-Mandan
2-Saron: When the Pandavas fight
3-Varta: The story telling by Das
4-Draupadi Chandon: When Draupadi comes in rage for killing the opponents.
C-Dance-Songs of Insatiate Souls In Garhwal, there are dance-songs of worshipping for nullifying the effects of bhutas (ghost), anchheri/apsaras (and sayad , These ghosts, anchheri and sayyad are insatiate souls. C-1-Bhut or hantya dance-Song: There are the bhoot of family (gharbhoot) and bhoot from outside (parbhoot) .
The hantya or ghadela for gharbhoot id performed by jagari. The musical instrument for Ghadela are Damaru and Thali. The Hantya jagar and dance are of pathos because the soul enters into the body of family members and remember the old days of her/his life. The example of jagar is :
Kani chhe bhula teri va hausia umar, kano chhe chucha tu jaiko piyaro
Dekh baithyan yakhi mu tera goti swara, duda bwai huin cha ya teri niputi mayed

Maut sabuk aund ag sabunk jagaund tin kayar ni hoon sagar ko pani sagar samand
C-2-Anchheri Nritya Geet: These are the unsatisfied souls of unmarried females who die in their young age. Ghadela is the means of worshipping these types of unsatisfied female soulsC-3-Saidwali : Said are dead soul of Islamic person and for satisfying them the Rakhwali is performed or Ghadela is performed . Such Ghadela are called Saidwali and are same as ghadela . The example of Saidwali song is:
Baba adam ko salam, hava amma ko salam, kaluva baba ko salam
D Ranbhoot Nritya GeetFor worshipping the family persons killed in the war , there is worshiping performance either by Ghadela or in Mandan .
The stories related to Ranbhootnritya sung in Ghadela or Mandan are :
1- Kaintura
2-Tillu Rautela
3-Sarju Kaul
4-Gadhu Sumyal
5-Kaffu Chauhan
6-Jagdev Panwar
7-Bramh Kunwar
8-hari Hindwan
9-Kali Harpal
10-Madho Singh Bhandari
11-Rama Dharni
12-Malu Raujela
13-Rranu Raut
14-Bhanu Bhopal
15-Kalu Bhandari etc
Apart from, the historical stories sung in Mandan or ghadelas, there are a couple of famous love stories of Garhwal, which are sung in Ranbhoot Mandan :
1-Jeetu Bagdwal
2-Fyunli
3-Saru Kumain
4-Jashi
5-Malu Shahi
6-Tilu Tadiyali
Third Chapter: The Community/Group -Social Dance-Songs A- Community and Social based Dance -Songs
Garhwal has a special place in India in terms of culture and arts. Garhwal has been the place, where it is said Vedas and Mahabharata were created or written. The sages used to come here for tapasya (Bhrigu, Vyas etc) . There have been regular in and out -human migration, exchanges of culture and arts in Garhwal from all over India because of being the originating place of Ganga and Jamuna , one of the main preaching places for Buddhism ( Kalsi-Danda Lakhaund) in Ashoka era, and later on the establishment of Badrinath-Kedarnath, Gangdwar being here . These many factors are responsible for multi-cultural panorama in Garhwal. Therefore, there is visible effects of Kerala, Bengal, Maharashtra, Gujrat, Rajasthan, Punjab, Nepal and Tibet on the languages, materialistic and psychological knowledge, spiritual philosophies, art, culture and craftsmanship of Garhwal . We may find the effects on the Garhwali dance- songs of the above areas.
Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal provides in details about following main community based social dance-songs in Garhwal: Thadya geet: Usually, Thadya dance-song is performed in fair, carnival, and at the time of assembling of village folks in community country yard at the time of Geetun maina (chait) . The females put their both hands on others shoulders and this dance -song is performed in circle. This dance resembles ‘Rauf folk dance’ of Kashmir. A famous song of Thadyageet is :
Ranihat ni jan gaje singh, mera bulyun manile gajesingh
Holjot ka din gaje singh, tu haunsiya baikh gaje singh
Tero baba ka bairi gaje singh, twai thorile marla gajesingh
Chaunfula: Chaunfula means to spread in all four direction. Chaunfula dance-song is a dance-song of enthusiasm, love, vibrancy, tenderness and for spreading delight everywhere and performed in two groups. The Chaufula, in many ways, is some how similar to Garba dance-song of Gujrat, Bihu of Assam, Ras of Manipur, where speed, agility, spontaneity is visible. An example of a song is as :
Nand tera dadu ka jayun cha dadu sunar ku ooti cha
Oti baithik kya kardu cha, nath besar gadandu cha
Jhumailo : Jhumailo is called Jambhalika in Sanskrit and originated by Sanskrit poet Kalidas . Jhumalo dance-song is performed from Vasnat Panchami to Shak Vikrami Samvat . The speciality of jhumelo song is that Jhumailo word comes at the end of each stanza. The songs are tender and description of nature and dance is performed as Thadya except that the steps come back and then forwarded. The Jhumalo is similar to Jhumar of Bhojpuri and Maithili except that Jhumar are love song but Jhumalo are nature songs as :
Phoolik ai gain jhumailo layedi rayadi jhumelo, neeganda burans jhumelo dola si gachhen jhumela
Mor or Mayur Nritya: This dance is full of enthusiasm and agility .The female dancers stand in circle, dance with holding other dancer’s hands like scissor, three dancer females dance in another inside circle and perform like peacock. The dancers take one step ahead and takes back and simultaneously move forward in circle too. The song are of rapture of love, description of nature as :
Hyunchali dandyun ka chali hinwali kankor,
Rangamtu hwai , nachan lagi myaro man ko mor
This community dance-song may be performed anywhere at any season.Vasant nrityageet: vasant dance-song starts from first day of Chait (13th march and runs till first day of Baisakh (14th april) and is the symbol of spring season. Chait month is also the month of Phoolun maina, when the unmarried girls collects flowers in evening and put those flowers on the doorsills. The dance by dancers is performed in community country yard and is group dance-song. The songs are nature related subjects and with love too. Initial line of one marvelous song is as:
Gweeral phuli ge mera bhina, malu beda phyunlyodi phuli ge bhina
Holi Nrityageet: The Holi dance-song came from the birth place -Mathura and songs are in Braj and not in Garhwali. These songs are sung for five days before Holi dahan with moving group dance.Khuded nrityageet: This type of dance and songs are sung by daughter in laws and are full of pathos, pain of separation from husbands, parents, brother-sisters, relatives or lovers. An example of song is :
Hey unchi dandi tum nisi hwai jawa, ghani kuyadi tum chhanti hwawa
Maiku lagin cha khud maitada ki, babaji ka desh dikhan deva
Chanchari Nritya geet: Chanchari dance-song is performed in the border areas of Kumaun and Garhwal. This is similar to Jhoda dance of Garhwal and is free style dance. Mostly the songs are of love rapture. An example of song is :
Chandi gadi bandi sua chandi gadi bandi sua, kaiki sua holi ino laguli si lafandI, deeda jan jota
Ghughtee Nrityageet: In Kumaun-Garhwal, crow is the sign of divinely portent. The unmarried females make bird of flour dogh and offer to crows on the festival day of Makar Sankranti and while, offering bird shaped dough, the girls dance and sing the song as:
Kale kava, kale , kale, kale, aja kaga, batha kaga haryan brich
Bol kaga bol kaga, chaudasi sagun, twai dyunlo kaga mi dudh bhat puri
Talwar Nritya Geet: The Talwar dance-song is chivalries performance. In Rawain-Jaunpur, it is called ‘Bisu Nach’. It is medieval Talwar dance-song was performed with swords on Vjayadashami by brave personalities before the king of Garhwal and citizens used to perform this bravery oriented dance in their village on Vijayadashami. Now, it is rarely performed. The wordings of a song from many such songs are:
Bhula ! Danda si Shr chhanwan, Kamal si phool chhawan
Bayali si bag chhawan, par itni si bat man tu kya wai mal sani sar nee kar sakada
Kedara: Kedara dance-song is performed on Vishwat Samkranti and is the worship of lord Shiva. This like dancing artiof lord Shiva . The Auji or das(drumming class) plays drums and sing the song and citizens dance in the circle surrounding Shiva temple till ‘Jaleri’ of Shiva temple.
He deva namo namo shanti deva, shanti kedar, anna deva, dhann deva
….kando ni baitho khut man, sukhi raino sabi, annmanto, dhannmanto kaide kedar
Gahsiyari Nrityageet: This dance-song is performed by felaes in grazing land either taking care of domestic animals in forest or cutting grass in the grass land. These songs are of various subjects and usually change according to time and place:
Gado gulband gulband ko nageena, twaite meri sasu, bwarin ki ageena
Budde lagandi jawani ka reesa, budadi tai dharla pungdee ka dhisa
Chhopti Nrityageet: Chhopti geet is performed near the area of border of Uttarkashi and Tihri Garhwal. Chhopati dance is similar to Chanchari where males and females dance in circle. Females stand and dance in hal circle and males dance in rest of the circle.The hands of dancers are on other’s back catching third dancer’s hands and then they dance. There is movement in dance but with two steps forward and one step backward.
Chhopati is lyrical dialogues based dance-song. The songs are definitely love songs as:
Postu ka chhua, meri bhagyani bau-j ki chhopti bhagyani bau
Rai tumara juma meri bhagyani bau-akhadu ka doka meri bhagyani bau
Chhapeli Nrityageet: Chapeli dance-song is popular dance-song off dusant (Kumaun-Garhwal border) . This purely a love dance-song where a young female and young male take part in singing and dancing. This is community dance-song and is performed in fair, festivals or specific events. The agility, speed, vibration, enthusiasm, passion for lover are the significant characteristics of chhupet dance-song. This song will provide the idea of the characteristics of Chupeli dance-song:
Standard stanza: maduli cha band, maduli hirahir
Sali (sister in law) : bakharo ko sank bal bakhro ko sank,
mi band band banun chhau re jija min kya kann yanko
Jeeja (brother in law) : chakhuli ka beet, chakhuli ka beet
Meri motor ma baith maduli aganai ki seet
Saraun Nrityageet: Talwar dance-song is about the knowledge of art of war by swords. However, saran denotes the winning of battle or war. The dancers perform dance with swords and armors . In Kumaun, this dance-song is called Chholia dance . There are no set songs for sarun but the wordings should create emotions of happiness, delight, pride, bravery, enthusiasm, agility, self-esteem, confidence etc. The songs are full of bravery and battle winning aspects:
Ek sing ran ban, ek sing gai ka
Ek sing madho sing aur sing kai ka
Phaufati Dance song: two unmarried teen age girls make pair and this way many pairs dance and sing in the community yard or in any plain place in grass land . There is similarity between Faufati and kiki or kikali of Punjab. There are small verses in this dance-song as :
Saruli sarpat jandari lhai de sasu bhentan dwee rwata pakai de
Sag pat kuch ni cha dwee musa mari de, mus ni mari sakdi ween tain bhel lamdai de
Bhailo-Bhailo: This dance-song is perfomred on the night of Egas/tulsi vivah. Kumauni call this dance-song as ’khantuduwa’ , Kumaunis dance with drumming of dhol-damau
And sing:
Bhello jo bhello khantuduwa,
gai ki jeet, khantudua ki har khantadu lagin dhar dhar
Gai bheto syo chanted pado bhel
After ritual prayer of fire of campfire in open field near village, Garhwalis dance on the tone of Dhol-damau and sing :
Bhailo re bhailo, khelo re bhailo, bagwal ki rat khela bhailo
Bagwal ki rati lachmi ko bas, jagamg bhailo ki har jaga subas
Dalyon ke Nritya Geeet: In Garhwal, Dallyas are Nathpanthi. The songs of Nathpanthos are related to Guru Gorakhnath, Bhartihari, Machhendra Nath etc.. Thsong are with detachment, spiritual subjects. The dallya plays Ektara, sings and dance slowly unlike baul of Bengal where the singer dance fast.
Ridhi ko sumron, sidhi ko sumiro, sumiron sarda mai
Ar sumiron guru avinashi ko, sumiron Krishna lanai
Jatra Nrityageet: These songs are sung while traveling for a religious places at the time of festival and the religious travelers sing prayers from mythological subjects dance while traveling is in slow rhythm :
Panchshila than panchdyau jaga, uccho mandir nis chandrabhaga,
Mandir pachha pani nigas, sila sanesur shivling khas
Jhoda Nrityageet: Jhoda dance-song is one of the main community cum group dance-song of eastern Garhwal and Kumaun. Usually, Joda nritygeet is performed in night, related to spring season. There is neither restriction on the numbers of dancers and nor there is restriction for subjects. Usually, people perform this dance and song in fair. One example of song is;
Male: heera Hiruli band, teelo dhar bola
Female; Kisni Khadkwal negi, teelo dhar bola
Baunchhado nrityageet: Baunchhado dance-song is free style dance and the dancers give jerks to their hands violently and dance simultaneously. This dance is some how nearer to Bhangda of Punjab. Songs are full of enthusiasm, love, satire, humour and agility:
Masurali ankhee chalaundi meri daunta kathain ge, dathidi ka chunka ab gaon ka uthain ge
Daita ki ankh man kya jadu bharyun cha kani tamkaundi ankhe najaron ko mauka jathai rai
Duda Nrityageet: The females in grassland taking domestic anmals for grazing or females cutting grass in the forest perform Duda dance-song. The dance -song is performed by two females or one male and one females . The songs are in questions answer format.
Jhangora ki daun-gaura de jahngora ki daun
Sadku ki gahseri . Gaseri kya cha tera nam. Jhamm
Brala ka bhaun-gora de ---
Bata ka batohi, batohi 1 gaura mera nam , jamm!
Bajuband Nrityageet: Bajuband songs are found everywhere in Garhwal but Bajuband dance-songs are popular in Rawanin -Jaunpur and are similar to Nyoli of Kumaun. Usually, Bajuband songs are love songs . The dance is very romantic and with lot of emotions and body language of male and female dancer. It is sure that males and females have experience of body love and the songs are in dialogues or questions -answer methods and first stanza is without meaning and is used for alliteration.
Phuli jali jai
Banjkatdari kai gaon ki chhai ?
Babula ki kuchi
Kai bhi gaon ki holi tu kardi puchhi?
…..
Sagwadi ko sag
Manakhi jaunli maya , purush jaula bhag!
Bau sarela nrityageet: Bau sarela songs are love songs and are related to sister in law (elder brother’s wife) and brother in law (husband’s younger brother). This is sung and danced in forest or grazing land to pass the time and entertaining :
Chali aa ye bau
Binsar ko mela, chali au ye bau
Banj ki anchhyani
Me paili jaunlu bau , tu mer paru pachyani
Tandi nrityageet: Tand means to stand and dance in single line.The tandi dance-song is performed by males and in half circle as Chhpati dance. The subject of tandi dance-song iare of varied subjects.
Sunda nal pani gaiti, janda nala mungari
Hath man tama ki ghaduli, hath man tama ki gagar
Laman nritya geet: The lamand gentrify is performed in Rawain Jaunpur and is somehow similar to Bajuband song-dance but with sophistication and no erotic language as found in Bajuband , all lines of song are with meaning . In dance, two separate groups of female and males dance. The leader of each group sings in question answer methodologies but complimentary to earlier stanza as:
Meri a teri a shaugiy lodadi, aurar sata
Paro bajay topind beech pad baint sampa
Khusauda nrityageet: crusade means the song and dance of happiness or delight and could be performed anywhere and any happy events as festival, marriage, rituals etc
Mate pade kam kam, dhungya padyan dam dam
Pad man motor chale tha-ra -ra pam pam
.Hansauda nrityageet: hansoda geet are laughter humorous songs and performed with dance:
Fur ghughtee fur
Sadkun ka kohl
Ghughti na biyan , la ghughtee mol, fur ghughti fur
Chhude nritygeet: Chhude geet is also called ‘Patkhai men chhuda’/ These songs are the songs of detachment, inspiration, condolence, love, meeting of beloved ones, separation of beloved ones etc as :
Ek na maryan bala ki boi
Ek na maryan taruna ki joi
Sipaya nrityageet: Garhwal has been the place of producing soldiers for all categories.
Therefore, it is obvious that there are songs-dances related to soldiers including pain of separation, pathos besides patriotic songs.
Datyan chhan morchon par at, pichhadi ni hata karda
Ni khando ju mar jaunko ni jand kwee war khali
Ina chhan shur beer ranbanka veer garhwali
Banjara nrityageet: Banjara dance-songs are free and varied in terms of subject, dancing disciplines, composition off sonnets, and number of dancers. Usually, The humour is there in banjara dance-song as :
Ta chham Ta chham
Mai nee andu twaiku, samgram budhy ram chham
Teri fulin cha dadi, sangram budy ram chham
Or
Twai budya ku lambo naku
Twai budya ko raindu nee
Gend mele ke dance-songs: The gindi fair on Makar Sankranti is very popular in Dhangu, Udaypur, Langur, Ajmer, Dabralsyun and Sheela pattis of south Pauri Garhwal. The game is similar to Rugby. Males-females perform many dance-songs in Gindi fair :
The songs, dances are enthusiastic, agile, humorous, esteem enhancer, as:
Charkhi tuti jali govindi na baith charkhi man
Charkhi man cha tyaro jithano na baith charkhi man
Jan Chetna ke Nrityageet: The people of Garhwal are very spontaneous in creating songs on any happenings great importance or least significance. There is always, creation of social awareness . The following song is of same kind:
Chalo bhai bando gaon khuni hauj banaula
Chal bhula dakhu klyun ki khoj kulyun tai dyaula dwee rupya roj
Chal bhula isuri odon ki khoj odon tai dyaula das rupya roj
B -Samuhik aur Samajik Nrityageet (Community/group and social dance-songs)There are certain classes in Garhwal which wander forest to forest in search of grass for their buffalos or goats/sheep . They wander with their animals from one place other place. They have their own dance-songs suitable to suit their situations.
BA- Bhotantik NrityageetBhotiyas live near the border of Tibet in Garhwal and they are of Tibetan genes. . Their main dance-songs are:Dandyala Nritya: Unmarried males-females take part in these dances-songs. This dance-song is similar to Chaunfula. The songs are the subjects of praying to deities/goddesses, descriptions of nature and love.Ranbankuri Nritya: This dance-song is of two kinds, One is purely related to love and there is vocal battle between female and male to win over each other’s love or to find out the nature of would be partner. Another is chivalry dance-songThadiya Nritya: This dance-song is perfomed in circle and separately by men and women. The songs are as :
Lokpal phulon t gahti , yad gait bhulpang ma rati
Ghangharya susu yan chadhai, lokpal swarg sainti
Pauna Nritya: The Pauna dance-song is the favorable most dance-song of Bhotiyas. This dance-song is performed at the procession of marriage party by baratis on the way and at the place of bride and groom too. The dance-song of Pauna is somehow Saraun nritya of Garhwal.Humani -Huma Nritya: Humani-huma dance-song is very attractive love oriented dance-song and performed by males and females together and is entertaining for the performers and audience too.Dhuring Nritya: There is obvious reflection of Tibetan culture and art on Dhuring dance-song. During dance is performed to avoid devilish souls . There are many styles of Dhuring performances. An example of song is as:
Udi pothuli , pothuli riti jali baj. Bal budya whaige ramnagar ko raja
Thali ghoti kansi kansi, bal buddo hwage buddu Rampur de fansi
Dance-Songs of Jaunlsar-Bhabar, Rawain and JaunpurThis tribal area comes under western Dehradunn Uttarkashi and Tihri Garhwal districts. Dr Nautiyal provided descriptions of geography and social structure of different tribes in these areas.Sayna Dance-Song: The sayana dance-song of Jaunsar (western Dehradun) is with love song and very effervescent dance. Male-female dance in half circle . The females take thalis (metal plate) on their fingers and dance with males. The initial lines of dialogues oriented song are:
Ek dhara de goru bakari, duje dhara de ghodi,
teri meri bal dostiyan, kunpapiyan todi
Baradi: Baradi dance is similar to Sayna danc e except that it is performed in Magh month and dancers take wine before and while dancing. And is more agile and aggressive than Sayna Jhainta or Judda: Judda is a group dance of females and males and is very subtle in dance sequences.Geet lagna: In this dance , there is outer circle of male dancers and females dance in inner circle and in the middle there are musicians and singers. Gandiyaras or Thura dance: This dance is similar to pandon and talwar dance of Garhwal and performed by males only.Ade-Pade: This like Chanchari dance of Kumaun-Garhwal border regions.
Dances of GaddisGadds means shepherds and this community roams here and there . This community is migrants of Himachal Pradesh. The gadis perform following main dances :Jhanjhoti dance: Females perform this artful, exciting, enthusiastic, oscillating dance and music is also exciting and entertaining.Prexani dance: Prexani dance is also performed by females and there is reference of love, appeasing, teasing, humor, pride of beauty etc in the song and dancers perform according to the reference of the song.one example is :
At buddu na deno chachua, deni chachua, sajar chude rand bhuchaga halo ho
Cha chakar jo na deni chachua, deni chachua, hal pande uthi gahadne ho
Nat-Nati dance-song: Somehow this is similar to badi-badan dance-song of Garhwal and is lot of humor in dialogues and performances.Natarambh Nritya: Natarambh dance is the initiation of love dance-song.
Folk Dance-Song of Khadwals Khadwal means the shepherd . Their life was depending on the sheep, goats . Mostly their dances are as Garhwali dances except the subjects and variations in dialects as :
Gaucherie paitanu khadalu, khadu kanduli ko denu
Tatu kochhu ku havsityun bharalu, kai k kochhdiya senu
Or
Chhd pyari tatu ki sagulti, chhod pyari siran ko hath
Bhed mera bagh marlu, that’d bidai naigi rat
The Folk Dance-songs of Kinnars of Malani river bankKinnars are supposed to be the original Garhwali and their history goes to Vishwamitra, menka, Shakuntala, Dushyant and Bharat . Kinnars say that they are descendents of apsara (nymph) Menka . They live near bank of Malani river (Bhabhar) and now assimilated with Garhwali community. They could be identified only when they show their dance-songs of Kinnar heritage. They are different than Badis and badans of Garhwal. Kinnars dance on eaxh song. Dance of Garhwal and many times, create songs for their exclusive dance styles. Dr Shrinidhi Shidhantalakar studied deeply Kinnars of Garhwal and wrote book on them. “ Malni Ke Banon men” . An example of song is as:
Gadi jali kool,gadi jali kool
Ithur fyunli tu ikhuli na phool
Pa ki cha mithai
Nirmohi fyunli tu kaiki chhe pithai
Folk Dance-Songs of GujjarsGujjar are a type of gypsies and they depend on buffalos and caws by selling milk to people of Garhwal.
Their dances are of four types:
1-Dance in circle
2-Dance in half circle
3-Dance opposite of each other
4-Free dance
Chapter -4
Vyavsayik Jatiyon ke Lok Nritya geet (Dance-Songs of Professional classes)
Auji, Badis-badan, Mirasi, Hudkya and Dhakki come under professional dancers and singers of Garhwal.
Dr Nautiyal described in full details about following main fold dance-songs performed by professional classes of Garhwal:Chaiti Song :Chait (13th March to 13 April) is called the month of dance ( month of dance and song). The girls sing this song :
Phuldei phuldei ful sangrand , sufal karo nayo varsa tumko bhagwan
Chaiti Nritya Geet: Auji perform the dance-song sequences from morning till evening and evertime the sequence is different according to time I.e dance and song will be different for morning, before noo, noon , after noon and evening .Subero naubat or Prabhati : Auji praises their masters by singing and playing drums . The songs are of praising subject as :
Vo danyun man ko danee raja bali danee ,
Vo danyon ma ko danee raja batand
Shyam Kalyani: This song is sung by Auji with playing drums before crowd of villagers as :
Jhai mata sakal bhavani
Jal thal udapi bhavani jhai mata safal bhavani
Chaiti Pasara: The auji go in mring to their eachThakur and praise the with song, dance and along with Badis or Jhumaria.
Ghiyan ka Chaiti Pasara or Bada mangan: When a girl deliver first child in her saural, the Auji from girl side come and sing the prayer for the health and prosperity of the child playing drums.Dholnrityageet: Dholnritya geet is extract of Dhol Sagar (the principles of Drumming) Dholnrityageet is very auspicious for Auji and only trained dancers could take part in dance. The sabad (song) is as :
Dhol Mahesh ne dhalya,
parvati ne batolya,
Vishnu ne gadaya, chari jug Madhya
Brabh upri kandoti
Kulachar: In Kulachar the auji or badis sing the history of families of Thakur or master.
Manglachar, manglachar, bada sarkar, bada darbar
Raja muhalli, raja mussadi, jug jug jeye rajdhiraj
Lang Nrityageet: Lang game is played by Badis in each village after twelve years and in the month of Chait. The song for Lang-game is as:
Khand baje ho khand baje, shiv parvati ko khand baje
Panchnam devtun ko khand baje, gaun ki bhagwati ko khand baje
Hudkya Nrityageet: Hudkya is a professional class in Kumaun and Garhwal and they used to dance and sing before king, ministers, land lords and now before wealthy persons.
In history, they were the source of self esteem enhancers for armed forces in battle fields or off battle fields . Now, they sing folk songs related to bravery of brave people or contemporary subjects as Badis.Shiv Parvati Nritya Geet: Badis perform Shiv Parvati dance-songs. The songs are related to kind, beneficial hearts of Shiva and Parvati as :
Vai dala man chhaya madec parvati,
nidra ma madev padya cha
Parvati bijyan chha ,
Sampu nriya geet: This dance looks like snake and performed by devotees of Ngarja. The wordings of song are as :
Dyul nagelo nachali bal dyul nagelo
Pitasini ka dhora bal nachlo, dyul nagelo nachalo
Thali Nritya Geet: The Thali dance is very exciting dance and song. The dancers dance on the edges of deep plate of alloy metal (kansi) Deepak Nrityageet: this is prayer performed by lighting earthern lamps by women in evening. In past, Deepak dance-song was performed on arrivals of winning army troops. The song is as;
Jay jayo shubh ghadi ayee jay jayo shubh din ayoSui Nrityageet: This dance-song is a specific and exciting dance performed by specialist class I.e Badans and dancer tries to pick up needle from ground by tongue and teeth . The songs do not have any relation with picking needle by teeth and tongue by the dancer and an example of song is :
He lathyali dadu kaiki bauran chhe?
, dhan si dhupli pani si payali
Kela si galkhi naunsi gundaki,
diva si jot kaiki baurani che?
Badi Badan or natnati nrityageet: Badis-badan or Mirasi-Mirasan perform dance in couple and sing too. The song may be of any kind from folk to contemporary as :
Chilmo ko peech
He mero moti ai gayo bharin saree beech
Radhakhandi Geet: The badis-badan or mirasi-mirasan dance -sing on the subject of love between Krishna and Radha
Krishna-- tera khutun ka Ghaghara Baja, chhanna chhanna, chhan -chhan
Tu bhali che banda radhachhnana , chhanna, chhan-chhan
Radha--tu bado haisyo kaniya, chhanan , chhanna, chhan-chhan
Bhali biraj denda hat ki bansuli…chhna-chhan
Ras-Sarun nritygeet: The singing and playing drums is performed by Aujis and females-males dance on the music of drumming.Awakening Songs; Depending upon the time, the professional class create awakening songs as songs of freedom fight, China war , Pakistan war etc.
Kasmir asam ainchu upsi ar ladakh
Chinyun hamala kari ainsun ka barakh
Chapter-5- Sangeet Shastriya avam Kavya-Shashtra Adhyan
(A study on the basis of principles of Music and Poetic principles )This chapter is very critical, knowledgeable and shows the hard work, deep study of Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal.
A -MusicDr Nautiyal analyzed each song and classified each song according to the principles of music. He provided the symbols or signs of Sa, re, ga, mapa.. Of musical measures for each song I.e Sangita lipi-chinhankan
He described in length the following tals (musical measures, tunes, rhytham) :
1-badhai (badhai)
2-Dhunyal( Jhaptal)
3-Barat Pitan (rahmani)
4-Naubat (Naubat)
5-Charitalim in Dhol-damau playing
B - Analysis of Folk Songs on basis of Poetic PrinciplesIn the chapter of Kavya Shashtriya Adhyan, the profound analyzer of Folk Dance and Song, Dr Shivanand Nautiyal classified, evaluated the songs on the basis of poetic principles. Inspiration for creating folk songs: Nautiyal credits nature, attractive geographical variances and human beauties of Garhwal, the assimilation of varied Indian cultures and becoming exclusive Garhwali culture for creation of such songs and dances.Rasyojana (Raptures ): Dr Shivanand classified the Garhwali folk songs from the angle of raptures of Bharat’s Natyashahstra and added two more raptures. Those raptures are:
1-Rapture of Love (meeting, conjunction and separation)
2-rapture of Chivalry
3-rapture of Wonder
4-Rapture of Wrath
5-Rapture of Pathos
6-Rapture of Fear
7-Rapture of peacefulness
8-Rapture of devotion
9-Rapture of natural beauty
10-rapture of Progeny
11-Rapture of love and dedication to parents Alankar Yojana (Structure by Figure of Speech): The learned Nautiyal reviewd Garhwali folk songs on the basis of following figures of speech, and other poetic parameters:
1- Upma (comparison)
2-Rupak (Allegory)
3- Utprexa (Illustration of rhetoric)
4-Bhrantiman (Illusionary)
5-Sandeh alankar (figure of speech of doubt)
6-Vanier (negation)
7-Atisayokti (exaggeration)
8-Anuprass (Different kind of Repetition)
9- Manavikara (Humanization or personification)
10-Vyanjana (Mystic)
11-Bimb Vidhan (Symbols)
12-Imagery
Dr Shivanand nautiyal did not leave any subject of poetry for reviewing Garhwali folk songs in this chapterAppendix:
In appendix , dr Nautiyal provided us the follwing important information:
1- Books and references
2-Garhwali Lok Vadya (Folk music instruments) He provided the detailing of following musical instruments of Garhwal:
a-Dhol
b-Damau
c-Daunr-thali
d-Dafali
e-Dholak
f-Hudka/hudki
g-Turri
h-Ransingha
I-Bhankora
j-Mochhang
k-Bansuli
l-Algoza
m-Nagada
n-Mushakbaja
o-Sarangi
p-Shankh
Chitravali or PicturesDr Nautiyal provided photography or line works of various dances and musical instruments on the last chapter of the bookConclusion: The author is proud that he could read this timeless book and he is proud that he met Dr Nautiyal in Mumbai in a marriage party and had chance to chat with such a knowledgeable person.
The book is thorough and in so simple Hindi that even less educated person can read and understand the book. Dr Nautiyal left unnecessary Sanskrit zed or intellectual words that a common man can understand it. The book is so elaborate in detailing the whole aspects of folk dance and songs
This book is definitely a collector’s book and neded to translate in pther languages especially in EnglishGarhwal Ke Lok Nritya Geet
By
Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal
Published by
Hindi Sahitya Sammelan
Prayag
Allahabad , Uttarapradesh, India

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