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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Sunday, September 4, 2016

Bird Instructions -2

British Administration in Garhwal   -29       
History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -45
            History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -883
                              By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
                 Trail determined the tax payment dates as per Hindi ‘Samvat’ in Garhwal. Malgujar used to deposit tax on first day of Hindu month at Patwari or Tehsil. However, the officials used to deposit tax to treasury as per Christian calendar next year.  The system has two flaws. It was inconvenience and there were chances for officials not depositing full amount in treasury.
     Bird determined at as per Christian calendar for depositing tax installments at treasury. There are following dates for installment payment in Kaul Karar Patta  at Batten time but were not as per government order (Dabral, pp185)-
1-1st November to 15th November
2-1st December to 15th December
3-1st May to 15th May
4- 1st June to 15th June
   As per 1840 circular tax payment dates for Malgujar were (Dabral)-
1-15th November
2-15th December or 15th January
3-15th April
4-15th May or 15th June
  In past and Batten land settlement regulations, Malgujar could auction the properties of land owners not depositing tax. There was authority with Malgujar for offering land to other land owners in case of old owners leaving the village or old owner was unable for paying tax. (Dabral pp185).
    Bird felt that the owners should have the right of plea (Hak Shafi=Right of pre-emptor) for showing his ownership on land.
      In the Bird order, Bird increased the power of land owners and lessened the power of Jagirdar, Muafidar and Talukadar 9dabral, pp 186).  From Garhwal point o f view the Bird instructions controlled the Budher, Thokdar, Sayana , Kamin etc taking gifts from the villagers. Bird instructions reduced the power of  Budher, Thokdar, Sayana , Kamin.  Malgujar was sole in charge for collecting tax. Patwari became the undeclared King of a Patti in Garhwal (Dabral pp 186)
        There were flaws in Bird instruction those were evident in Batten settlement too.  On Batten settlement, officials or Batten first determined the tax on Pargana and then divided tax on villages. The best way was would be first determine each village and then determine the tax as the total for Pargana (Dabral pp186).
  Second major flaw was tax determination (Najar Andaji) without measuring the actual land. However, Pau stated that the tax determination by Batten was more logical and as per contemporary situation (Pauri Garhwal Settlement report page 57).
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 27/8/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -884
*** History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun, (Pauri, Rudraprayag, and Chamoli) Garhwal (1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
 1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page 184-185, 186
2- Bhanu, Dharam,  History and administration of North West Provinces page 172. 173, 193, 178, 181

History of British Rule, Administration , Policies, Revenue system,  over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule , Administration , Policies Revenue system  over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system  over Bageshwar  Kumaon, Uttarakhand ;
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;