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Monday, November 28, 2011

Pushkar Singh Kandari : The Collector of 13000 Garhwali Proverbs and Mottos or Folk Sayings

Pushkar Singh Kandari : The Collector of 13000 Garhwali Proverbs and Mottos or Folk Sayings
                                                               Bhishma Kukreti
                                        (Garhwali, Kumaoni, Himalayan Folk Literature)
Pushkar Singh Kandari will always be remembered for his keen interest in collecting and publishing proverbs, sayings and myth of Garhwal and Garhwali language. He collected more than 13000 proverbs and sayings of Garhwali and 8681 proverbs are published .
Pushkar Singh Kandari was born in a Himalayan village Jagoth, Patti Kandi of british Garhwal (now-Rudraprayag) on first January 1929. His mother’s name was Panchami Devi, father’s name was Dev Singh Kandari and Nanda Devi is wife.
After getting M.A degree , Pushkar Singh got L.T (Teacher training degree and is equal today’s B.Ed. He joined education department and became teacher. Pushkar Singh Kandari became principal and served many schools as principal. Later on Kandari was promoted as sub deputy inspector of schools. Pushkar Singh Kandari retired as deputy inspector of schools. Pushkar Singh Kandari worked in many places of Pauri Garhwal, Tihri Garhwal, Chamoli Garhwal and Rudraprayag. As sub deputy or deputy inspector of schools , Kandari had to travel remotest areas of all Garhwali districts .
The nature of job and his interest in folk literature from childhood became a positive points for Puskarkar Singh Kandari for collecting proverbs, sayings, riddles, puzzles, folklores, folk stories of various regions of Garhwal Himalaya.
History of collection of Garhwali proverbs and Folk Sayings
The folk saying or mottos and proverbs explain the geographical, political, spiritual religious, social pattern of each area. Therefore, no body can deny the importance of proverbs and folk sayings for management teaching in the society. Proverbs, folk-sayings, mottos and folk stories have been the schools of management in each society.
Educated Garhwalis have been paying attention on collection and publishing Garhwali proverbs and sayings from early twentieth century.
In 1894, Pundit Ganga Datt Upreti published Garhwali proverbs in his famous book ‘ Proverbs and Folklores of Kumaun and Garhwal ‘. E S Oakley wrote the introduction of this book . The book contains 375 pages and proverbs are divided for each concept such as Ability, Want of appreciation, Work and Wages, Women , Uselessness .. Indira Gandhi National Centre for Arts New Delhi reprinted this treasure book in 2003 through Concept Publishing Company , New Delhi. The major specialty and utility of this book is that the proverbs are translated in English too. Pundit Upreti provided folk stories related to many sayings .
The first ever collection of exclusive Garhwali proverbs was published in the name of ‘ Garhwali Kahavat Sangrah’ by Pundit Amba Datt Dangwal ‘Sharma’ of Udaypur Tihri Garhwal in 1931.
In 1938, Shaligram Vaishnav of Karnaprayag published ‘ Garhwali Pakhana ‘ in 1938 and Dr Pitamber Datt Barthwal edited these Garhwali proverbs.
In 1937, Bhajan Singh ‘ Singh’ the profound Garhwali poetry creator and prose maker provided the details of 601 Garhwali proverbs and sayings in the introduction of his book ‘Singhnad’ a mile stone in the history of Garhwali literature. Bhajan Singh ‘Singh’ published these proverbs separately in 1970 as ‘ Garhwali Lokoktiyan’.
Dr Govind Chatak also credited not only for collecting Garhwali proverbs and popular sayings but also analyzing them scientifically in his intellectual notes in ‘ Madhya Pahadi ka Arthshashtriya Adhyayan’.
Dr Chandra Shekhar ‘Azad’ also collected more than thousand Garhwali proverbs and sayings and a regional periodical of Dehradun ‘Garh Jagar’ have been publishing those proverbs and popular sayings.

Work of Pushkar Singh Kandari
Pushkar Singh Kandari have been collecting proverbs, folk sayings and puzzles of Garhwal from his childhood. Kandari told this author on a telephonic interview that from his childhood , he is very sensitive to hear proverbs and folk sayings and then remembering those folk proverbs-sayings became his habit of life. Just any body says a proverb and Pushkar Singh will catch those sayings and will keep in mind. Kandari became habitual to write notes of those proverbs and sayings , which he heard . His transferable job as reacher and principal, traveling job and job of deputy inspector of schools for coming in contact with all types of people also helped Kandari to collect proverbs and folk-sayings .
In 2005, Vani prakashan , 2 Dariyaganj, New Delhi published the work of Pushkar Singh Kandari as ‘ Garhwali Kahavaton aur Lokoktiyon ka Brihad Sangrah ’. There are 8691 garhwali proverbs and folk sayings in this marvelous book of Kandari. Pushkar Singh Kandari provided meanings and explanation in Hindi.
Kandari also have additional list of 4000 and above Garhwali proverbs and folk sayings and at the age of eighty, Pushkar Singh Kandari is waiting to publish these Garhwali proverbs and folk sayings.
By collecting more than 13000 Garhwali proverbs and mottos or folk-sayings Pushkar Singh proved that Garhwali is one the oldest and richest most Indian languages in terms of vocabulary and words. Even after thorough research, this author could not find more than 4000 proverbs and sayings in any language of world. This proves the strength of Garhwali language and credit goes to the hard work of Pushkar Singh Kandari .
Pushkar Singh Kandari also published a book on folklores of Garhwal as “ Garhwal ki Janshrutiyan’ . This book of folklores of Garhwal is very important instruments for writing the history of Garhwal.
Historians of Garhwali literature and historians of Garhwal will never forget the dedication, focus of Pushkar Singh Kandari in collecting and interpreting Garhwali proverbs, motto or folk sayings.
Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2009