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Tuesday, September 8, 2009

Garhwali Folk Literature-8

Classification of Garhwali Folk Songs: A discussion
Bhishma Kukreti

Garhwali folk songs are so varied and are in such numbers that there had been debates and discussions for classifying Garhwali folk songs
The credit goes to the city of Dehradun that most of the important works on collection of Garhwali folk songs and publishing was done in Dehradun except the work of Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna, Bhajan Singh Singh and the works of analysts of modern time . Garhwali a periodical (1905) used to publish the Garhwali folk songs regularly. ‘Sadei’by Tara Dutt Gairola is the first collection of folk songs published from Dehradun.
Out of ten twelve scholars, there are five research scholars -Dr Govind Chatak , Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Dr Mohan Babulkar and Dr Hari Dutt Bhatt ‘Shalies’ and Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna who did thorough study and classified them scientifically. Bhajan Singh , Keshav Anuragi also collected folk songs but thet either did not classify them scientifically or as Keshav Anuragi who focused more on Dhol Sagar and its music. Today, we have many scholars who studied Garhwali folk songs but the works of five scholars is always referred for discussion.

Let us find out how these scholars classified the folk songs of Garhwal
Taxonomy by Abodh Bandhu Augean (1954): Analysis of Garhwali folk songs started by Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna: Dhunyal (1954) is first work of analyzing and classifying the Garhwali Folk Song . Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna classified Garhwali Folk Songs on the following types:

1- Mangal (auspicious songs)
2-Kula char (Introducing and description of family tree)
3-Panwada (praising achievers)
4-Khuded (sad song)
5-Jagar (Awakening songs sung in Ghadela)
6-Tantra Mantra
7-Hori (Humrous and sung at Holi time)
8-Chakhulya (Personification of animals)
9-Naya Geet (New)

The main flow on this classification is that it is not analyzed on scientific basis but on conventional basis .

Classification by Dr Govind Chatak: Dr Chatak (1956): Dr Chatak is credited for doing depth research , study in collection and analyzing Garhwali folk songs . Dr Chatak classified Garhwali songs on the basis of local names as he accepted in introduction of his classic book ‘Garhwali Lok Geet’ and he classified the Garhwali folk songs on the following divisions:

1-Puja Geet (prayer and worshiping of deities/goddesses)
2-Mangal (Auspicious)
3-Prem, Roop, Ras (Love songs)
6-Vasanti (Spring)
8-Dampatya Jeewn ( Family life)
11-Samajik Geet
12-Vividh Geet
Classification by Dr Mohan Babulakar: Dr Babular (1967) classified Garhwal Folk Song as below in his famous boo ‘ Garhwali Lok Sahitya ka Vivechanatmak Adhyayan’ :
1-Sanskaron ke geet
2-Devi Devta stuti , Tyoharon ke Geet
3-Khuded geet
4-Ritu (season) and Virah (pain of separation)
5-samuhik Gey geet (group or community songs)
6-Tantra Mantra Geet
7-Laghu geet (short songs)
8-jatiyon ke geet (songs created and sung by specific class)

Classification by Dr Hari Datt Bhatt ‘Shalilesh: In his book ‘Garhwali Bhasa aur uska Sahitya’ , (1964)D Bhatt bifurcated the folk songs of Garhwal into following categories:

1-Mangal: k-Awhahan Geet. Kh-Puja geet, G-Vivah Geet, H-Loriyan (very rare),
2-Jhumailo: (sad and Love songs): K-Jhumailo, Kh-Chhopati, G-Laman
3-Thadya ya Vasanti geet 1- Vasnti 2-Hori
4-Bajuband (Rhymical dialogues)
5-Chaufala ( Achieving right objectives, ambitions, economical benefits and final solutions)
6-Khded geet
8-Chaumasa (Songs of rainy season)
9-Baramasa (songs for every season)
10-par Updeshatmak (Inspirational)
11- Samayik (Songs of contemporary subject or happenings by Badis)
12-Rashtriya geet (Patriotic songs)
Classification by Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal: Dr shiva nand Nautiyal had been also collecting Garhwali folk songs and his edited books are
A-Garhwal ke Lok Geet (1964)
B-6-Garhwal ke Khuded Geet (1965)
C--Chham Ghugharu Bajala (1964)
D-Garhwali Baramasa

Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal never thought of analyzing Garhwali Folk Songs as his above contemporary scholars were classifying songs. Only, in 1979, dr Shiva Nand classifed Garhwali folk Songs in Garhwali Manas (1979, page 52) and surprising ly his classification is more scientific, more subtle, more clear than his contemporary researchers. He divided following songs and dances together as follows:

1-Mangal Geet: K-Awhahan Puja geet, Kh-Puja Geet, G-Vivah geet
2-Jagar : Narsingh, , Ngarja, Devi, Hantya, Pandav, Bhairon etc
3-Panwade (Chivalry songs ): Historical and non -historical
4-Tantra Mantra
16-Lori geet
17-Patkhai men Chhuda
By the above analysis we may state that dr Shiva nand Nautiyal’s classification is appreciable in terms of terminology and subtle .

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti