Temple land and temple Administration in British Garhwal-2
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
itish Administration in
History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -110
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -947
. Trail accepted the ownership on land offered to bigger temples by Garhwal Kingdom and Gurkha rulers by studying the records. Trail also cancelled ownership on some land by temples. There were two classes of such land Gunth and Sadvrat. Trail kept the management for Sadavrat with government and the income from Sadvrat land was used for road, health and shelters facilities for pilgrims.
In 1859, Becket restudied the Sadvrat land and took land of Kamleshwar Temple, Shrinagar under Sadvrat land. The Sadavrat Land management was as Khalsa land. There was no control on cultivator of Sadavrat land by temple priests and administrators. There was no ownership of Priests or temple administration on the income from cultivators as tax from Sadvrat land.
Gunth Temple Land Administration
Trail mentioned that the temples could take tax from Gunth land but temples were not owners of the land. In past, the cultivators or actual land owner used to offer tax in form of grains. The tax from Gunth was used for priest and Bhog for the temples. In many cases, after cultivators leaving the village, priests or temple administrators took the land and became land owners. In many cases, the temple employees had ownership of temple land. Trail converted some villages into Khalsa or Sadavrat villages. However, there were left Gunth land.
On 15th November, 1895, there was a government notification as under –
1-The government cancelled the ownership by Badrinath, Kedarnath etc temples on unmeasured and barren Gunth land.
2-The tax from whole Gunth village would go to temples.
3-If the Gunth land is partial from a village the Gunth land would be as it was and the balance land would be counted as Khalsa or Sadavrat land and tax from Khalsa land would be deposited in government treasury.
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History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -946
*** History of British Rule/Administration over British Garhwal (Pauri, Rudraprayag, and Chamoli1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page- 269-278
2- Becket, Garhwal Settlement Report, page 9, 45
3-Pau, Garhwal Settlement Report
History of British Rule, Administration , Policies, Revenue system, over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule , Administration , Policies Revenue system over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system over Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand ;History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;