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Sunday, January 8, 2017

Forest Management in British Garhwal

Exploitation of Forest Resources-1

                            British Administration in Garhwal   -101
History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -119

            History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -956
                              By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)

                          Old Custom of Forest Management in Garhwal

   The Garhwal Forests had two major types –
1-Shivalik and Bhabhar Forests
2--Hill Forests
              Though, the forests were state property, Garhwal Kings used to get income from Shivalik and Bhabhar forests.  Anybody could cut trees from Bhabhar –Shivalik forests and could make furniture, coal or could uses for fuel. When the person used to export furniture or wood, the sate used to levy export tax (Nikasi kar). There was tax on extraction of Katha. State used to offer contract for collecting export tax on forest goods produces.
                 In hills, the villagers used to consume forest products without paying any tax. State used to take tax from mines only.

     Change in Forest Management in Garhwal in British Rule

     For three years of initial British rule, British administration kept same custom of forest management.
   In 1817, the administration ended ‘Nikasi kar’ (export tax) and government instructed Trail for levying tax on Bhabhar and Shivalik forests as ‘Kath –Bans –Malhas’ tax.
 The forest tax income from 1818 till 1829 in Rs. was as follows (Atkinson)-
Year------------------Kumaon income----------Garhwal income-----------Total
  There had been continuous conflicts in bordering south region of Garhwal-Kumaon and north bordering regions of Moradabad and Barrely. In 1824, the south region were handed over to Moradabad and Barelly.
  In 1826, the order was reversed and Garhwal Bhabhar –Kumaon Bhabhar came under Kumaon division.  
  Before, 1828, Charai kar (Grazing tax)  in Bhabhar was separate than Kath-Bans Malhas tax . In 1828, The administration offered contract of wood to contractors of ‘Chrai’ too.   

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 31/12/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -957
*** History of British Rule/Administration over British Garhwal (Pauri, Rudraprayag, and Chamoli1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
 1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page- 279-286
 2- Atkinson, Himalayan Districts, Vol.-1 page 845-847


History of British Rule, Administration , Policies, Revenue system,  over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule , Administration , Policies Revenue system  over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system  over Bageshwar  Kumaon, Uttarakhand ;
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;