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Sunday, January 8, 2017

Income from Forests in British Uttarakhand (Kumaon-Garhwal)

Exploitation of Forest Resources-4

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                            British Administration in Garhwal   -105
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History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -122
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            History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -959
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                              By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)

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           Officials took tax in Toll Tax Stations at Shivalik hill valleys for the outgoing wood from Shivalik hills.   Catechu was costly and the officials used to take tax as per Catechu   extraction factories (Bhatti). The tax on catechu was Rs.7.50 per Bhatti or extracting oven.
        The outing tax on wood was as follows in 1847 in Uttarakhand (Atkinson) in Rs. per carrier –

Particulars --- --------------------Bull Cart -----Mule load-Donkey----- Head load----------Boat load

Average wood-----------------------6-------
Sal Log (Shorea robusta ) ---------8
Oil Crusher--------------------------- 8
Sal logs for House --------------------8
Tendu log ------------------------------4
Bamboo----------------------------------6-------------------6----------------------3--------------------1
Babad grass ------------------------------6--------------------6--------------------3-------------------1
Tat-Nakul -----------------------------------6------------------6---------------------3
Grass for hut roofing -------------------6
Grass Munj for hut roofing -----------4
Lime------------------------------------------12-----------------6---------------------3
Lakh -------------------------------------------------------------2
Wood for coal or coal---------------------4
  The demand for above items was increasing in plains. British exploited the Uttarakhand forests as much they could.
  From 1855-57, there was sudden demand for sleepers for railway lines. The pine sleepers were being imported from Norway. The European sleepers were not durably fit for India. The Saugan, Sal sleepers were more durable. Therefore, British offered contract for cutting Sal, Shisham, and Saugan trees from Uttarakhand. Contractors cut the forests cruelly.

                            



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Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 8/1/2017
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -960
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*** History of British Rule/Administration over British Garhwal (Pauri, Rudraprayag, and Chamoli1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
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(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
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References  
 1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page- 287-312
 2- Atkinson, Himalayan Districts, Vol.-1 page 840-915
3- Waver, Forests of Upper India and their inhabitants page 13

Xx

History of British Rule, Administration , Policies, Revenue system,  over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule , Administration , Policies Revenue system  over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system  over Bageshwar  Kumaon, Uttarakhand ;
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;