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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Thursday, March 12, 2009

Mumbai Pravashi Ashrayadata -१ - Narayan Datt Jakhmola

Mumbai Pravashi Ashrayadata -1
Narayan Datt Jakhmola :jakh tyar khut takh hamaroo mund
By -Bhishma Kukreti


Migration is a biological phenomenon. The migration occurrences is found in unicellular organisms, water borne plants-animals, birds, animals and human beings. We have proofs of great migrations happened in the history of human kinds from its emergence as Homo sapian .

Migration means the temporary or permanent movement from one place to other places.

Garhwalis have two ways of migration. Most of the present Garhwal is because of people migrating from different parts of Jamboodweep, Bharat, Hindustan or India and establishing themselves in hilly areas of Garhwal . Mahabharata the greatest epic of this world is the first record for showing the glimpses of people migrating temporarily or permanently to Garhwal. Valmiki’s Ramayana too suggests the migration of people to Garhwal from various areas of Jamboodweep. Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral the greatest research scholar and history writer of Garhwal provided time wise details of warriors migrated to Garhwal in his nine volumes of Uttrakhand ka Itihas. The first ancestor of Panwar dynasty of Garhwal who ruled Garhwal till free India was a migrated Rajashthani. Harikrishna Pandit Raturi in his famous book ‘Garhwal ka Itihas’ provided caste wise details of original places from where the Garhwalis were migrated and the original places where first man of each caste established in Garhwal . Rahul Snatyakritan threw lights on migration of people in Garhwal from all over India for centuries. The recent big way migration phenomenon witnessed by us is the establishment of Punjabis and Sindhis in Garhwal after Independence. The establishment of marwadis in Garhwal is nothing but the phenomenon of migration in Garhwal from various areas. Creation of separate state is also becoming the base of migration in Garhwal from different parts of India andin foreign countries.

Another way of migration is Garhwalis fleeing from Garhwal and establishing themselves in various cities and villages of other parts of India. Though, we don’t have any authentic record but it is estimated that approximately, one fifth population of Garhwalis is scattered here and there in India and other countries.

Garhwalis started migrating from Garhwal nation ( Garhwal have been a sovereign country for centuries and never been part of Mogul dynasty at all) after British empire won the Garhwal area from Nepal and took Pauri Garhwal area under its fold leaving Tihri for Panwar dynasty to rule.

With the start of British rule, the migration from Garhwal began because of weak economic reason and low output from agriculture. Though, uncertainty of raining and the low output from agriculture had been a regular phenomenon in Garhwal from the time the human race started creating villages in Garhwal. British era provides new types of earning media to Garhwalis, which were not there in India (beyond the nation of Garhwal) before British rule. The newer medium of earnings in British rule were the motivating factors for Garhwalis to migrate out of Garhwal willingly and convincingly.

Narayan Datt Jakhmola was also such a Garhwali who was enticed to migrate from Garhwal for improving the economic conditions of his family and relatives. Born in around 1895 or a couple of years before in a famous village Jaspur, Dhangu British (Pauri) Garhwal. He was the eldest son among five sons and two daughters of Loongi Ram and Sarswati Devi. His two unmarried younger brothers died in their youth. Kanhaya Lal, Parma Nand, ghanshyam, Kishni Devi, Shrimati Devi were the names of his brothers and sisters of Narayan Datt Jakhmola. His wife’s name was Mathura Devi (of Masogi, Dabralsyun) . Narayan Datt Jakhmola saw many family tragedies in his life. He suffered the first tragedy as the death of his two younger brothers, the death of his both the sons and later on his wife died in early age of forty.

Once, Jaspur was a very famous village of Gangasalan (the southern Garhwal along with the bank of sacred river Ganges. Jaspur is the original village of Kukretis who migrated from Gujrat in back early fourteen centuries. Jaspur had been very famous for its crafts for iron smithy , metal smithy, gold smithy ,building builder etc for centuries not only in Gangasalan but in Tihri up to Narendra Nagar, Gulargad, Vyashi, Kaudiyala , Masan areas too. The hookas, agricultural appliances, metallic utensils, precious metal ornaments, were exported to various regions of Garhwal (i.e. Tihri and Pauri) from Jaspur. It is said that the first Kukreti person Guru Prasad brought the Giya jee, the first person of today’s shilpkar families of Jaspur, along with him from Gujrat.

Jakhmolas of today’s Jaspur are original inhabitants of Mitragram (Dhangu, Pauri). The first Jakhmola person of Jaspur was a gharjawaain of a Kukreti family of Jaspur.

Narayan Datt Jakhmola was the first person to migrate from modern Jaspur in search of job. Tara Datt Jakhmola (cousin of Narayan Datt Jakhmola, Chhagti Ram Kukreti (my great grand father’s cousin‘s eldest son) and Brahma Nand Jakhmola (Narayan Datt’s cousin) followed him later on .

Narayan Datt Jakhmola took primary schooling from Bareth and learnt astrology from his village learned persons. He got recruitment in army around 1911 or so. He was trained as motor driver and was deputed to Iran in first world war as British army man .

After taking retirement from army, he shifted to Delhi but left Delhi after a couple of years for better earning in Mumbai . Narayan Datt Jakhmola might have come to Mumbai in late twenties or early thirties. He established an astrological office in Gwalior Tank Mumbai then the staying place for Garhwali migrants. However, the pressure for improving the economical conditions of his family in Garhwal , he used to drive taxis too. Since, earning in taxi driving was far more than earning by astrology, Narayan Datt Jakhmola took taxi driving as main profession and astrology rather became side business for him.

Narayan Datt Jakhmola bought a kholi in Pandit Chal Dadar, Mumbai and that room became a historical place for inhabitants of Dhangu, Dabralsyun, Banelsyun, Aswalsyun and Udayapur pattis of Garhwal. Pundit Chal has very auspicious importance for inhabitants of the said pattis of Garhwal. Hundreds of Garhwalis came first to Pandit Chal in Mumbai for searching jobs and made fortunes for them. Pundit Chal is meant an economical temple for the people of said pattis. Unemployed people from the said region used to come to Pundit Chal, stayed there and got the suitable jobs and then used to find shelter of their own. Till, then Pundit Chal was the shelter, place of comforts etc for migrated Gangasalanis.

Narayan Datt used to give shelters to Garhwalis coming to Mumbai in his kholi and used to arrange suitable jobs for them that they could send money to Garhwal for improving the economic conditions of their families.
Whenever Narayan Datt Jakhmola used to go to

his native village in return to Mumbai, he used to take other unemployed people of his area for coming to Mumbai. Most of the time he had to bear all expenses of traveling food etc of those people . He used to provide temporary sheltering and food help to the emigrants too. Tara Datt Jakhmola was second person of Jaspur who came to Mumbai in search of job. Likewise hundred of people of came to Mumbai from Dhangu because of Narayan Datt Jakhmola. That is the reason, a new proverb emerged in Dhangu ‘jakh narayan datt ku khut takh hamaroo mund’. this was the tribute to late Narayan Dattfrom the inhabitants of Dhangu area. Vishnu Datt Jakhmola, Daya Ram Jakhmola , Chakradhar Kukreti, Kali Ram Kukreti of Jaspur came to Mumbai on the support of Narayan Jakhmola.

Narayan Datt not only helped the immigrants in Mumbai but also he did help his family members in Jaspur and other relatives in terms of improving standard of life in villages and education for new generation. He along with Daya Ram Jakhmola built a big building outside of Jaspur that their family members can live comfortably in village. He also was one of the prominent donors of Silogi middle school in Dhangu.

Narayan Datt Jakhmola was the friend and contemporary of late Vishnu Datt Godiyal of God, Raja Ram Molashi of Paysu. He was also founder member of Garhwal Bhratri Mandal an oldest Garhwali social organization of Mumbai. He along with many Garhwalis in Mumbai saw dreams of having buildings where Garhwali migrants could reside together. Garhwal Darshan in Mumbai is the result of the dreams of older generation of migrated Garhwali like Narayan Datt Jakhmola , Vishnu Datt Godiyal, Tara Datt Jakhmola, Raja Ram Molasi, Girdhari Lal Arya, Shri Krishna Barthwal, Balam Singh Negi , Ram Dayal Chauhan,.

Narayan Datt Jakhmola died in 1958 in Mumbai .

The Garhwalis will always remember persons like Narayan Datt Jakhmola who silently helped their society of modern time in building the economic base for eradicating the poverty of Garhwal.


(The author checked up with Mohan Lal Jakhmola residing in Dehradun, Ramesh Jakhmola, Rajendra Jakhmola, and Atul Jakhmola all residing in Mumbai the nephews of Narayan Datt Jakhmola about his life sketch and he is indebted to all of them.)

Copyright @Bhishma Kukreti/Mumbai/India/9/3/2009