Characteristics of Kham Settlement in Garhwal Bhabhar -10
itish Administration in Garhwal -86
History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -104
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -941
There were three types of Asami (Sirgiroh and Cultivators) in Bhabhar Garhwal in British period. Asami means either Sirgiroh (Rent payer of the land) or different types of cultivators.
Kumauni farmers or Asami- Those cultivators were migrated from Kumaon.
Garhwali farmers or Asami- Those cultivators came from hills of Garhwal
Desi and other famers –Those were from plains, Nepal or cobbler families from plains.
There were different opinions of different officers about cultivators.
According to Kham superintendent Bhopal Singh, Hill cultivators (Sirgiroh, Famers, Sajha etc) were better than plains cultivators in terms of hard work and honesty. Deputy Commissioner Pau was supporter of Bhopal Singh. However, commissioner was of different opinion.
Stowel wrote “Desi (plains) famers are better in farm technique but hill famers also improved a lot in farming. Now, hill famers are far better than hill cultivators. Hill cultivators have better houses and have distances between other houses than lousy congested huts by plains cultivators. There are wood piles in court yard of hill cultivators but plains famers have caw dung cake for fuel. Desi famers don’t go to forests for fuel wood but hills cultivators like wood for fuel. Hill cultivators use caw dung for manures and not for fuel. Hill cultivators have houses with distances. That system is better for fire protection and epidemic protection too. The plains cultivators have cuddling huts together and that results in fire together and spreading epidemics faster. “
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History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -942
*** History of British Rule/Administration over British Garhwal (Pauri, Rudraprayag, and Chamoli1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page- 249-278
2-Stowel, 11919, Report on revision on rent in Garhwal Bhabhar 1919 page 7
3- Bhavani Datt Joshi, 1893, Report on Rent in Garhwal Bhabhar 1893, page 13, 94
3- Dharma Nand Joshi, 1909, Report on Rent in Garhwal Bhabhar 1909 page 3
History of British Rule, Administration , Policies, Revenue system, over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule , Administration , Policies Revenue system over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system over Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand ;
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;