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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Tuesday, December 6, 2016

Haliya and Sajhi in Ibbetson Settlement in Garhwal

Characteristics of Ibbetson Settlement in Garhwal -19

                            British Administration in Garhwal   -75      
       -
History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -93

            History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -930
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                              By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
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 Pau wrote, “ In real sense, we can’t put ‘Haliya (plough man) and Sajhi ‘ in owner category. Haliya works as servant for his master farmer or jamindar and does not have any right on the land. Sajhi is found in only in Bhabhar. Sajhi has slightly more independent position than Haliya. However, Sajhi does not have any right on the land at all. In British initial period, the position of Haliya was nearly slave. Higher castes Brahman do not plough land. Therefore, Brahmans use Harijan as Haliya for ploughing land. Land owners arrange food and shelters for Haliya. By 1836, land owners offered clothing for Haliyas once in three years only. Land owners used to pay for marriage expenses of Haliyas. There was buying and selling of Haliyas in Kumaun by 1836.”
         Though, the selling and buying of slaves was banned in Garhwal and Kumaun, the custom of keeping Haliya was remained same as past. By end of nineteenth century, there was increase in the wages for Haliya. It was informed to Pau that owners offer a blanket, clothing, food, shelter on annual basis to Haliya. Haliya looked after plough, agriculture works, cutting crops and thrashing etc.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 2/12/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -931
*** History of British Rule/Administration over British Garhwal (Pauri, Rudraprayag, and Chamoli1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX   
References  
 1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page- 234-247
2-Ibbetson, A.W., Revenue Settlement of Garhwal District, pages
3-Pauw, Garhwal settlement report, page 42
4- Tara Datt Gairola, Selected Revenue decisions of Kumaun. Page 222-223
Xx

History of British Rule, Administration , Policies, Revenue system,  over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule , Administration , Policies Revenue system  over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system  over Bageshwar  Kumaon, Uttarakhand ;
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;