Characteristics of Kham Settlement in Garhwal Bhabhar -6
itish Administration in Garhwal -82
History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -100
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -937
There was great hardship in settling in Bhabhar Garhwal at initial British ruling period. The Bhabhar season was not conducive for human beings. The summer and rainy season were most painful for people in Bhabhar. Bhabhar inhabitants used to send their women and children as soon as summer started as the sun and sun stroke were fatal for human beings. The rainy season was dangerous due to malaria. In summer and rainy season, strange fever (not heard in hills), indigestion, cholera, dysentery, etc diseases were common in the area. Even in Bhadon (October), the sun heat was disease career. At that time, usually old people and children used to fell ill and death rates were highest in Bhadon.
The dirty water from hill used to be used for irrigation in Bhabhar and that dirty water was dangerous for creating various diseases. People used to make toilet at canal bank and that dirt used flow towards down side.
The wild animals were another hurdle for agriculturists. Due to non hill people of plains , the robberies, gambling, theft, extortion, murder, alcohol production etc were common and hill people were not habitual for tackling such crimes.
Transport, medical facilities (no vaid in Bhabhar), education facilities were not there in Bhabhar and criminals had conducive shelters in Bhabhar.
Since, the lease for the land was on temporary basis, the people did not courage for correcting jungle for agriculture. The farmers (real owner) did not have any rights on the land.
The proverb “Bhabhar ko bas Kul ko Nnash or you will lose generation by settling in Bhabhar’ commonly used by 1950 in Garhwal.
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History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -938
*** History of British Rule/Administration over British Garhwal (Pauri, Rudraprayag, and Chamoli1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page- 249-278
1A Dabral, Alaknanda Uptyaka page 128
2- Walton, Garhwal Gazetteer page 150, 151, 152
3- Bhawani Datt Joshi, Report on the Revision of Rent in Garhwal-Bhabhar page -25,35, 58, 59, 106, 115,
History of British Rule, Administration , Policies, Revenue system, over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule , Administration , Policies Revenue system over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system over Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand ;
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;