Characteristics of Kham Settlement in Garhwal Bhabhar -2
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
itish Administration in
History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -96
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -933
Bhabhar settlement was called ‘Kham’ settlement. The lower layer of land was stony but upper layers had soil due to soil coming from hills through rivers and rivulets and humus due to putrification of tree leaves etc. There was shortage of water. Human beings dig ponds here and there but not wells.
Initially after encouragement from British administration, the settlers dig raw canal for irrigation. The soil was so dry that soil used to soak water from canals.
British started building durable canal of lime from 1877-78. The canal was started from east of Khoh river and it used to fetch water for Kotdwara and nearby region.
After encouraging digging mud canals, British encouraged people for settling in Bhabhar. A farmer easily used to get permission for settling in Bhabhar by cutting trees and shrubs. Such farmer was called Sirgoh. He used to call other farmers and used to offer them land for agriculture. He used to pay wages etc to them. Sirgoh also used to hire Halya on barter system or used to offer land on getting one third of crops (tihar) from real farmer. Those farmers were called Sakhi of Sirgoh. British administration used to rent land to Sirgoh on rent. There was no permanent settlement as was done in hills of Garhwal. Sirgoh used sublet the land.
Bhabhar was called British estate. Therefore, government offered land on rent to farmers. This offering land to Sirgoh was called Kham settlement. British used to revive renting after every five years.
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History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -934
*** History of British Rule/Administration over British Garhwal (Pauri, Rudraprayag, and Chamoli1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page- 249-278
2-Trail, Sketch of Kumaon, Asiatic Researches Vol.16 page 207
3- Walton, Garhwal Gazetteer page 151
4- Bhawani datt Joshi, Report on the Revision of Rent in Garhwal-Bhabhar page -9
History of British Rule, Administration , Policies, Revenue system, over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule , Administration , Policies Revenue system over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system over Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand ;History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;