उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका की गतिविधियाँ ई-मेल पर

Enter your email address:

Delivered by FeedBurner

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Sunday, December 18, 2016

Halya/Hali (Plough Man) , Sajhi in Garhwal Bhabhar

Characteristics of Kham Settlement in Garhwal Bhabhar -11
-
                            British Administration in Garhwal   -87   
       -
History of British Rule/Administration over Kumaun and Garhwal (1815-1947) -105
-

            History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -942
-
                              By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)

-
          
              Hali/Halya or plough man was a labor that worked with farmers/cultivator or Sirgiroh. Sirgiroh or cultivator used to take work for plough, fencing, cropping, harvesting, thrassing etc from the plough men. Usually cultivator (Sirgiroh or  farmer) used to offer one forth of crop to the Halya/Haliya /plough man. Usually, plough man and cultivator had a oral agreement between them. Cultivator used to offer plough man free food, shelter and clothing too.
Many plough men used to spend whole life with master (cultivator).
  Sajhi means partner. Sajhi was above than plough man. Sajhi used to get one third of crop (Tihad) from the cultivator for doing all agriculture works. Cultivators had power to withdraw Sajhi any time.
 Usually, Sajha were local Boksa, cobbler caste from Bijnor. Definitely they were hard workers.
         Around 1900, government paid attention on improving the situation of Sajha. MC Nayar sent a letter to Kham superintendent Bhopal Singh for making Sajhi as Sirtan (second grade land owner)
Clay also suggested improving the position of Sajha.
Commissioner Campbell instructed deputy commissioner Clay for knowing the real men working as farmer (Sajha). Campbell instructed Clay for making real famer (Sajha) as Asami (owner or Sirtan).  
 The situation of Asami (owner) and Sajha was as under (Ibbetson) –
Year ---------Asami------------Sajah ---------Total Asami
1914------------ 846--------------361-------------1207
1919------------ 773-------------- 655------------ 1428
1924-------------971----------------683------------1654
1929--------------1077--------------679----------1756
The above chart shows that many Sajha became Asami (owner might be Sirtan).
In 1939, Kalam Singh Negi and in 1946, Lalit Prasad Naithani wrote letter (Dabral) to government for improving the condition of Sajha.
  Many Garhwalis from hills also started buying land in Bhabhar and became Asami.
-
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 16/12/2016
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -943
-
*** History of British Rule/Administration over British Garhwal (Pauri, Rudraprayag, and Chamoli1815-1947) to be continued in next chapter
-
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX   
References  
 1-Shiv Prasad Dabral ‘Charan’, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Part -7 Garhwal par British -Shasan, part -1, page- 249-278
2-Stowel, 11919,  Report on revision on rent in Garhwal Bhabhar 1919 page 7
3- Dharma Nand Joshi, 1909, Report on Rent in Garhwal Bhabhar 1909 page 3
4-Clay , 1914, Report on Rent in Garhwal Bhabhar, 1914, page 13
5-Ibbetson, 1929, Report on Rent in Garhwal Bhabhar, 1929 page 2


Xx

History of British Rule, Administration , Policies, Revenue system,  over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule , Administration , Policies Revenue system  over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies ,Revenue system  over Dehradun , Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand ; History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, ,Revenue system  over Bageshwar  Kumaon, Uttarakhand ;
History of British Rule, Administration, Policies, Revenue system over Haridwar, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;