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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Wednesday, December 16, 2015

First British Attack on Jaithok/Jaithak Fort

Nepalese Anglo War with   Reference to Gurkha Rule over Uttarakhand & Himachal -87
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -203   
             History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -729
                                                                    
                                         By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

  There was small fort or Garhi of 12x8 Meters in Jaithok. Garhi was built by mud and gray Hill stones. Jaithok was the meeting place of two Hills at lower level (Khal). There were two separate roads in each hill for reaching Jaithok /Jaithak Khal. Hastings had already studied important hill Garhis of Himachal, Garhwal and Kumaon. Hastings advised his army for surrounding Jaithok Garhi. There was no water source in Jaithok Garhi and soldiers of Garhi had to come down for water to four water sources. By capturing the water sources it was easy to compel enemy for surrender.
 However, Martindale decided for firing guns from two hills. On 26th December Night 1814, Martindale sent army of 800 solders led by Ludlow   from left hill and 500 soldiers led by William Richards through right hill. Both battalions had canons of 6 ponds and other advance canons. Those canons were reached on hills through elephants. Both the battalions were supposed to reach on hills by down. The path of Richards was long and road for Ludlow was shorter.
Ludlow reached at 8Am morning to the decided site. He found a hut with wood boundaries (Bara) there. His army also encountered three Bara (hut with fence) before reaching to hill. The British army fired on the soldiers of Bara. Informer informed that there were Gurkha soldiers trying to reach at fourth Bara .Guns and ammunition were not with soldiers and were far behind. Ludlow decided to attack on those Gurkha soldiers before them reaching to Bara.  Ludlow soldiers fired on Gurkha soldiers and easily captured fourth Bara. Ludlow was advised to wait for William Richard troop. However, due to insistence of soldiers Ludlow advanced his march and wished for capturing fifth Bara.
Gurkha soldiers allowed British army for reaching to fourth Bara. As soon as British army of 400 soldiers under Ludlow reached to fourth bara, Gurkha soldiers attacked suddenly on British army. Each Gurkha soldiers was shouting ‘Hirkai Deu –Kill them’. Gurkha soldiers were habitual of hills war and British soldiers were not habitual for fighting on hill roads. Gurkha started killing British soldiers by Khukri. British soldiers started running back. Ludlow also ran back. There was casualty of 31 European soldiers and 120 Indian soldiers. By 10AM Ludlow army reached to Nahan with shameful defeat.  
                                                                                                                 


(From wittings of Fraser, Prinsep and Premble)
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 17/12//2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -729
*** History of Gorkha/Gurkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued in next chapter
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
XX                    Reference

Atkinson E.T., 1884, 1886, Gazetteer of Himalayan Districts …
Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
Colnol Kirkpatrik 1811, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal
Dr S.P Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 5, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda
Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B. D. Pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Balchandra Sharma, Nepal ko Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University  Press
Minyan Govrdhan Singh , History of Himachal Pradesh
A.P Coleman, 1999, A Special Corps
Captain Thomas Smith, 1852,Narrative of a Five Years Residence at Nepal Vol.1
Maula Ram/Mola Ram  , Ranbahadurchandrika and Garhrajvanshkavya
J B Fraser , Asiatic Research
Shyam Ganguli, Doon Rediscovered
Minyan Prem Singh, Guldast Tabarikh Koh Tihri Garhwal
Patiram Garhwal , Ancient and Modern
Tara Datt Gairola, Parvtiy Sanskriti
John Premble, Invasion of Nepal
Chitranjan Nepali, Bhimsen Thapa aur Tatkalin Nepal
Sanwal, Nepal and East India Company
Nagendra kr Singh, Refugee to Ruler
Saxena, Historical papers related to Kumaon
Paper Respecting Nepal War by East India Company (papers in Stock)
Basu, Rise of Christian Power in India)
Moti Lal Ghosh, an article in Amrit Bazar Patrika
XXX
History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Sirmour Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Kangara Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Baghat Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; Punar Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand;  Nahan Himachal; History Gurkha /Gorkha Rule over Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal; 
Nepal Itihas, Garhwal Itihas, Kumaon Itihas, Himachal Itihas;  Gurkha/Gorkha ka Kumaon par Adhikar Itihas , Gurkha/Gorkha Garhwal par Shasan Itihas Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal;  Gurkha/Gorkha Rule in Kumaon, Garhwal Uttarakhand; History Gurkha/Gorkha  Rule in Himachal Ruthless Gurkha/Nepalese Administration in Himachal