21 Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Song as stated by Dr. Mahan Babulkar
There have been many research scholars who did research and wrote criticism about Garhwali folk literature including Folk Song and music. Dr Govind Chatak, dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal and Dr Mohan Babulkar are the main pillars of doing surveys of Garhwali folk literature . However, Dr Mohan Babulkar is credited not only for his serious researches and exposures of Garhwali Folk song but he is exalted for providing extensively the characteristics of Folk Literature in any society or area concern. In his famous book “ Lok Sahitya Sidhant aur Prayog” published in 1980, Dr Shri ram Sharma writes about the extensive works of Dr Mohan Babulkar, “Dr. Mohan Babulkar increased the characteristics of Folk Song up to twenty one. Honestly , Dr Babulkar provided the name of researcher who gave the name to a particular characteristic of Folk songs….After this comprehensive characterization of folk songs, there is no space for anybody to add new characteristic of folk songs. The integrated analytical work of Dr Mohan Babulkar is very appreciable.”
Dr Babulkar provided following twenty one characteristics of folk songs (Garhwali Lok Sahitya ka Vivechanatmak Adhyayan, page-11):
1- These are traditionally ballad in nature and not of written form
2-these are non-masculine (apaurishiya) in nature (as per conventional definition provided in Vedas for apaurishiya)
3-The creator does not creates for name or fame
4-These are created and diminishes or continuity is fundamentals of creation of folk songs
5-This is the reason, we can not get manuscript of these types of literature
6-the songs are lyrical and melodious
7-These lacks the long story or dialogues
8-There is no boundary of time and place in these songs
9-These are created by women
10-These songs communicate the struggle or lacking something in life but don’t mark or count the lacking in life
11-These folk songs express the simplicity of human culture and emotions
12-These songs narrate the nature and ethnicity of the land
13-in the absence of artificiality , these songs are reflection or approval of spontaneosity and decorationlessness .
14-The language of these songs are of country folk men ,therefore, folk songs don’t have the language of meteoric poetry .
15-These are away from cities or towns. Therefore, there is nature, landscape, human-life, seasons of village or rural regions.
16- According to Shri Devendra Starchy , the girls of region carry and bring (transfer) the symbols from one place to other places.
17-These are the narration by and of nature. According to Shyam Parmar, the main properties of folk songs are--without tawdriness, transparent or pure as glass, simple, ecstatic , melodious.
18- Dr. Shyam Parmar appraises another property of folk songs that history is hidden into them,. The narration of big heart of female, the human relation from birth to death, the asset of human evaluation , immense stock of emotions and melody are their other properties.
19-Dr Yadu Nath Yadav suggested that the domain of folk songs are with high speed of management skill, effortless word construction, universal delight of nature and human, subtle but very effective characterization , enormous narration of sport ground, relegating of artificiality and insincerity.
20-According to French critics Mr. Ayere , the creator of folk song uses synchronizing style in sound instead of using rhymes in verses, repeated uses of numbers--three, five and seven, inclination of adding the name, waiting for somebody, questions and answers in verses are the characteristics of folk songs.
21- Collective wisdom, benefits to people, inclination to universal cooperation and freedom are other characteristics of folk songs
Though, there are a few repetition in the above twenty one characteristics of folk songs but nothing is left to describe the characteristics of folk song after the laying down the characteristics by Dr Mohan Babulkar.
The above characteristics are also the characteristics of Garhwali folk song
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India 2009.