Bhishma Kukreti (2011) concludes with references that Chaufula, Chaunfula or चौफुल़ा (ळ +आ ) or चौंफुल़ा (ळ+आ) dance is there in Garhwal before 2000 years back. The song is very popular in the region and part and participle of Garhwali culture. A prolific expert of Garhwali folk literature Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal states that in most of the respects, Chaufula, Chaunfula or चौफुल़ा (ळ+आ ) or चौंफुल़ा (ळ+आ) is similar to garba of Gujrat, Bihu of Assama, Ras of Manipur and the dances of medieval time dances as Chamtkar Nrity, Chalit Nrity and Geet Nrity. Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal argued that the people (who settled in Garhwal from various regions of India) added the new version into primitive Chaufula, Chaunfula or चौफुल़ा (ळ +आ ) or चौंफुल़ा (ळ+आ) dance and song.
Since, the old classic books provide less literature on group dances , it is difficult to find out history of development of Chaufula, Chaunfula or चौफुल़ा (ळ+आ ) or चौंफुल़ा (ळ+आ) dance –song.
Bharat Naty Shashtra offered more time on Solo dance but orovided very less literature on group dances. Bharat called group dance as ‘Pindibandh’. Bharat described nd divided group dances as per the form the dancers create while dancing. That is why Bharat took cue from war strategy and called group dances as Mayurpindi, Trishulpindi (raudrpindi), Kamalpindi, Halpindi, Garudpindi etc (Bharat Natya Shashtra, 4- 221 to 272) similar to Battle strategy as Chakrvyuh, Mayurvyuh, Makdvyuh etc. Bharat did not mention any rule of gender discrimination in group dances.
Steps ,Movement and Chronological Satges of Chaunfula चौंफुल़ा (ळ+आ) Dance
The dance is performed in open place specially in country yard (Chauk). The dance starts by female dancers and male dancers standing in line separately. The female dancers come opposite of male dancers but not too far and the each dancer comes forward one step, put left hand on the left hand 9palm) of opposite dancer and again put right hand on the right hand of opposite dancer. After this the dancers come back on original position. In second stage, the dancers clap on the hands of opposite dancers with going forward one step and then coming back. In the third stage, each dancer moves in full circle with dance and then claps on the opposite dancer’s hands as in earlier stage In fourth stage, the dancers create a circle and moves in dancing form in anti-clock direction. Dancing in circle is fifth stage of Chaufula, Chaunfula orचौफुल़ा (ळ +आ ) or चौंफुल़ा (ळ+आ) dance. Now half of the dancers sing the song and other half repeat the song. The half dancers bend towards left and half dancers bend towards right while dancing in sixth stage. The dancers beat their feet on the earth and clap while dancing in circle. The singing also goes on.. from third stage the performing on face start (Mukhaabhinay). In later stage, the dance takes speed and singing takes back seat.
Here is an Old song of Chaufula, Chaunfula or चौफुल़ा (ळ +आ ) or चौंफुल़ा (ळ+आ) Dance –Song.
Major Types of Chaufula, Chaunfula or चौफुल़ा (ळ +आ ) or चौंफुल़ा (ळ+आ) Dance –Song.
There are many variants in Chaufula, Chaunfula or चौफुल़ा (ळ +आ ) or चौंफुल़ा (ळ+आ) Dance –Song. However, Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal provided two main varieties of Chaunfula dance as:
1- Khada Chaunfula dance
2-Laludi Chaunfula dance for both genders
3-Laludi Chaunfula dance for male dancers only
As far as numbers of dancers is concerned, there is no restriction for number of dancers. However, the dancers should be in even numbers for making pair.
The songs pertaining to Chaufula, Chaunfula or चौफुल़ा (ळ +आ ) or चौंफुल़ा (ळ+आ) Dance –Song.are mainly of
1- Love rapture
3- Satirical or playful raptures
5- Doubting to other or lovers songs
Specific Characteristic of Chaufula, Chaunfula or चौफुल़ा (ळ +आ ) or चौंफुल़ा (ळ+आ) Songs.
Usually, in Garhwali folk songs, the first stanza or line is meaningless stanza and is used to make lyrical poetry.. The first meaningful line is always repeated.
However, in most cases, in Chaufula songs, te first meaning less stanza is not found and the firsts line is also not repeated with other stanzas.
चौन्फ़ल़ा (ळ +आ) नृत्य गीत का एक उदाहरण
(गढवाली लोक गीत, उत्तराखंडी लोक गीत, भारतीय लोक गीत)
महात्मा गांधी बडो भागी छ, देस मुल्को अनुरागी छ Mahatma Gandhi is great man, He loves this country
बाखरी दूद ओ पीन्दो च, खाड़ी क लारा पैणदो च He takes the milk of goat, he wears Khadi dress
(सन्दर्भ: डा. शिवा नन्द नौटियाल गढवाल के लोक नृत्य-पृष्ठ ११२-११९) .
Group Circle Folk Dances-Songs of France
In most of the community, group circle folk dance-songs are common. Take example of France, there many types of folk group dance-songs which are performed in circle..in a brilliantly researched book’ Folk Dances from France, Fredericka Moore provides us the details of following group dance-songs which are performed in circle with graphic figures and musical notes and in all the following dances, children, girls and boys take part::
1- Girofle, Girofla ( In a couple of aspects , the dance has similarities with chaunfala as clapping, backward and forward movement etc)
2-Il court, Il court, Le Furet
3- Meunier, Tu dors
4-Nous N’Irons Plus au Bois
5-dans le jarden.. ( this is similar to Chaunfla dance in many aspects as in this dance song, the dancers make two lines facing each other and not too far.and later on makes circle. The difference between Chaunfala and this dance is that it is also a game of animals and birds.
The description of Garhwali Chaufula, Chaunfula or चौफुल़ा (ळ +आ ) or चौंफुल़ा (ळ+आ) Dance –Song .and briefing about group circle folk dances of France is proof that circle group dance-songs have been there in the older societies allover world. The variation in foot movements and body parts may differ but the people gain same rapture all over the world.
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