Critical and Chronological History of Modern Garhwali (Asian) Poetry –-152
Literature Historian: Bhishma Kukreti
Using animals as symbol for telling story or preaching lesion is an old way oldest form of expression in literature without words or with words.
As far as animal symbols in Sanskrit classic are concerned, animals have been used in all types of literature as Mahabharata, Ramayana, Upanishads, Hitopadesh,Jataka or Panchtantra. The great poet and Dramatist Kalidas used animals as symbols in his classic literature.
From modern satirical literature point of view ‘Animal Farm’ a great novel by Indian born British citizen (who worked in Burma and India as British officer too) George Orwell (1903-1950) is the best example of using animal as symbols for creating satire, humor and preaching too. Animal Farm is best example of symbolism and allusion in prose. As per a critic Michael J. Cummings (2003) , there are following major themes in ‘Animal Farm’-
1-Maintaining an Ironclad on power, ruthless dictator
2-‘Power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely.
3- Lies can be dressed up in clothing of truth.
4- Absolute loyalty to authority invites abuse of power.
Chaucer used animals in his many poetic tales.
Great symbolic poet, Nobel laurite William B. Yeats used animals in his poetries including his attempting to turn himself into a Landor Style social ironist (Bloom Harold 1972)
Lewis Carroll is famous for creating animals as his characters for humor creation.
Kipling’s ‘The Jungle Book’ is the best example of r using animals for humorous literature. American president Theodor Roosevelt was fan of the novel ‘The wind in the Willows’ (1908) by Kenneth Grahame because animals as symbols of human characters and creating humor (Gale Cengage, 2003).
Great satirical Spanish poet and novel writer Mitchell Vazquez ( 1547-1616) also used animals for symbolic purpose .
C.J. Heinrich Hein (1797-1856) a German poet is famous for creating symbolic poems using animals for symbolic purposes. Another German poet Rainer Maria Rike (1875-1926) used animals as symbol in his famous poems ‘Ding-Gedischte 9Things Poems).
French literature creators have been always doing evolution for art from borrowed from other area. The French poets used haiku for creating symbolic poems too as Jules Renald , Couchoud, Fernand Gregh, Gilbert, jean Paulhan, Francis Jammes , Paul Claudel etc . Bertrand Agostini mentions Many French Haiku creators used animals as symbol for satire and humor in his brilliant article ‘The Development of French Haiku in first half of 20th century’(1998).
In all languages and society, using animals as symbol for creating humor and satire is very common.
A poetry critic and language professor of Mumbai University Dr Manju Dhoundiyal after studying ‘Khigtat’ and ‘Uktat’ poetry collections by Harish Juyal mentions to this author that Harish Juyal ‘Kutz’ is one of the great satirical poets of contemporary humorous and satirical world poetry.
The following poem is proof that remarks of Dr Manju Dhoundiyal that Harish is one of the great poets of contemporary satirical and humorous world poetry.
स्याळ : The Cunning Fox
कवि - हरीश जुयाल 'कुटज'
डंड्वाक पाणी चरणा छन
माछा तीसन मोरणा छन I
बिरळयों कि ह्वेगे खलगड्डी
मुसा चुलखंदु क्वरणा छन I
दिन घुघत्यों जादा रैनी
ढंगरयों गरुड़ घुरणा छन i
स्यू बाघ ह्वेगिन लुंज
स्याळयूँ क ठाट चलणा I
जैनि हैंको जलड़ी उगटऐन
आज वी औंगरणा छन I
(ग्राम टसिला , पट्टी मल्ला बदलपुर )
Harish Juyal uses animals in such a way that the readers smile but feel sharp pain on the changing social and political scenario.
The literal meaning of poem is
Bear are watering (or taking water from the pond)
Thirsty, fish are dying
Cats are without skin
Rats are biting earthen stove
Gone are the days of Ghughti’s melodious warbling?
The vultures are warbling
Brave Tigers are now, crippled
Cunning Foxes are now, leaders
Those who are de-rooting jungles
They are now, prosperous
Harish is winner in using common animal symbols and creating an image of horrible changes in the present society. The ‘Syal’ poetry speaks that changes are just opposite of what should have been for the benefiting present and excellent future.
The poem is complete and competitive enough for establishing statement of Dr. Manju Dhoundiyal that at present Harish Juyal is one of the great satirical poets of world literature.
Harish Juyal born in 1969, in Taseela village of Badalpur, Pauri Garhwal.
Copyright@ Bhishm Kukreti