उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका की गतिविधियाँ ई-मेल पर

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उत्तराखंडी ई-पत्रिका

Wednesday, October 7, 2009

The difference between Khasanikayen and Bajuband poems

When, I posted the letter of ' Challenge to Hindi Lover' I got call from literature friends and literature creator as MS Lokesh Navani, Madan Duklan, Puran Pant Pathik, Keshar Singh Bisht.

You also saw the letters of MS Vipin Panwar, Sunil Uniyal, Girish Dhoundiyal and Parashar Gaud.

in conversation, one matter came on the surface that " Khsanilayen" of Hindi poetry form are also smaller in size and numbers of words. However, the main differences between Kshanikayen and Bajuband poems are
1- Bajuband poems are in lyrical nature or Bajuband poems are sung as song , बाजूबंद कवितायेँ गेय होती हैं

2- The first part of bajuband is meaningless but is necessary for making Bajuband as lyrical


सुपिनों माँ
नारंगी तोडीं
जैका लिम्बो तोडे

ललत केशवन कृत गढ़वाली में क्षनिका )

बाजूबंद के उदहारण :

१- धनिया को बीज--क्या तरसेन त्वै फर तू बिराणी चीज
२- लोहा गढ़ी छेणी -- कनु बिसर्युं तेरी भुक्की पेनी

गेयता का बड़ा अंतर क्षनिक और बाजूबंद में है और यही करण है की बाजूबंद काव्य अभिनव, अनोखा, सर्व श्रेष्ठ काव्य कहलाया जाता है --

Copyright : Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2009

गढ़वाली बाजूबंद काव्य - 1 - Garhwali Bajuband Kavya -1 (Garhwali Love Poems )

Garhwali , Kumaoni , Himalayan Folk Songs

Comparison between Haiku and Bajuband a Garhwali folk poetry

(Characteristics of Haiku a Japanese poetry and Bajuband Poetry )

Bhishma Kukreti

Bajuband is one of the smallest form of poem in terms of lines, syllabus are concerned. There is a form of poem Haiku, which was a folk poetry of Japan. However, due to hard works of Japanese poets, this form of poetry has been adopted in many languages . Even Garhwali poets are experimenting by writing Garhwali poems in Haiku form.

Characteristics of Haiku

The poem form of Haiku comprises of 17 syllables and normally there are three lines I n Haiku.

There must be five syllables in first line, second line has seven and there will be five syllables in the third line.

Each haiku includes a season word that is ‘Kigo’ and Kigo specifies in which the haiku poem is set. In haiku, season is not that much important as the cutting or division between two contrasting parts. The English Haiku creators use dash or colon to designates the division of cutting.

The example of an English Haiku is as under created by Sunil Uniyal ( Ref-1)-

the Olympic torch-relay ~
in a road-jam
A Garhwali poet Virendra Panwar created Haiku poem in Garhwali as -

Badal raini

Dar ka birdyan

Bathon banee si

बादल रैनी
डार का बिर्दयाँ
बथौं बानी सी

Characteristics of Bajuband poem

The Garhwali Bajuband poem is couplet. The first part is meaningless but is necessary for making poem poetic and care is taken in choosing the words that the whole poem becomes rhyme or melodious. The second part has five to seven words only, having real meaning of the poem and these five or seven words make the main point of the Bajuband poem. Example :

Laguli ka mod---pathli kamar tuti jali ko lagalu जोड़

लगुली को मोड़ --पथली कमर टूटी जाली को लगालो जोड़

‘Laguli ka mod’ part is meaningless for the poem and seven words ( Pathli kamar tuti jali ko lagalo jod) of second part is having complete meaning of the poem.
The meaning of last part of poetry is that the waist of lover or a girl is so delicate that if it is broken who will rejoin the broken waist (No body would be able to rejoin ) .

Both the forms of poem are marvelous pieces of poetic forms and Bajuband and Haiku forms have their own significances in world poetry . Both the poetic forms I.e. Haiku and Bajuband are marvelous piece of invention by the mankind and we should continue advancement of such kinds of poetic forms.

1- Uniyal, Sunil , 2009, The Olympic Torch - A Haiku,


2-Panwar Virendra, 2004,Inma Kankwaki aan vasant, Dhad Prakashan, India (pp 33-34

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2009

Garhwali, Kumaoni, Himalayan literature

Surendra Singh Rawat : A Playwright of Garhwali language of Social issues

Surendra Singh Rawat has written Garhwali dramas and all are with social issues and full of satiric with humor.

Surendra Singh Rawat was born in Bangar Rawai Mainjani village of Himalaya .
Much is not available about life sketch of Surendra Rawat . However, Raibar a monthly Garhwali language in March 1956 issue and Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna in Gadmyateki Ganga (pp-53) provide the detail of plays created by Surendra Singh Rawat.

Rawat wrote the following plays
2-Anpadh gailya
3-Kanya bechi
4- Beman Naukar
5-Sharab ar Kharab
6-Ajkal ki Panchait

The first four plays are hilarious, attack on the social bad customs with wit and humor.
The last two plays of Surendra Singh Rawat are based on the serious issues emerging in the society and opened the eyes of learned people that society has to take actions for stopping emerging bad customs in the society. The use of humorous language, the flow in the plays are superb in these plays. Rawat used common Garhwali proverbs for creating interest of the readers.

Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India 2009

Garhwali, Kumaoni, Himalayan Literature

Vishalmani Upadhyaya ‘ Sharma’ : A Religious Garhwali Playwright and Publisher
Bhishma Kukreti

Vishalmani Upadhyaya ‘ Sharma’ will always be remembered for publishing his eighteen books and other twenty eight books of other writers related to Garhwal, Uttarakhand , Himalayas from his publishing house ‘ Vishal karyalaya‘. In Garhwali literature, Garhwalis remember him for his religious drama and essays.
Vishalmani Upadhyaya was born in a remote Himalayan village Ghagora, patti- Kalifat of Chamoli Garhwal in 1896. Vitamin Upadhyaya established a publishing house in Narayankoti, near Guptkashi of Himalayan region. He published forty one books related to Garhwal, Himalayas from his publishing house and ‘ Kanakvansh MahaKavyam ‘ of Achaarya bal Krishna Bhatt and ‘ Uttarakhand Yatra Darshan ‘ by profound historian Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral are famous and well read books of this publishing house.
Vishalmani Upadhyaya ‘ Sharma’ wrote and published two Garhwali language plays - ‘ Shrikrishna ‘ and Bhakta Dhruva Balak’ in 1955. Both the religious dramas are of great importance for advancing the growth of Garhwali prose art . The dialogues are having the influence of “Jagar’ style that is lyrical effects on the dialogues in both the dramas.

Vishalmani Upadhyaya Sharma died on 31 st January 1976 in Narayankoti

Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India 2009

Garhwali, Kumaoni, Himalayan Literature

Shyam Chand Negi: A Garhwali Language Essay Writer
Bhishma Kukreti

Shyam Chand is famous for his English writing, however, whatever Negi contributed to Garhwali prose, is marvelous piece of prose and is having the example of Tiryali dialects in Garhwali writing.
Shyam Chand Negi was born in village Belgaon of Athur patti of Tihri Garhwal of Himalayan region on 1st October, 1912.
Shyam chand negi obtained graduation degree and formal training in journalism from Lahor .

Shyam Chand Negi was a freedom fighter and was poisoned in “Quit India’ movement in 1942.negi was one of the founder and conveyer of Tihri Rajya Praja Mandal.
Shyam Chand Negi was freelancer journalist for many English dailies and weeklies. Negi also edited Northern Times for quite some time.

He wrote books as ‘ Some eminent Garhwalis’, ‘ Ganga the Greatest’, Freedom Fights Grieves Strain’ in English.
He wrote essays in Garhwali language, which were published in many regional magazines. Govind Chatak provided the examples of his writing in Garhwali language in his famous book ‘Garhwali Bhasha’ (pp-144) . The language is of Tiryali dialect and the subjects of Garhwali essays written by Shyam Chand Negi are mostly inspiring and having social issues. This author praised Negi for bringing regional taste and aroma in the essays
Shyam Chand Negi expired on 3rd December 1982 in his native village Belgaon, Himalaya .

Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2009

Garhwali, Kumaoni, Himalayan literature

Sadanand Kukreti: One of the Greatest Story Writers of World Literature and the Father of Modern Garhwali Prose
Bhishma Kukreti

Sant Sadanand Kukreti was called ‘Sampadak ji’ (Editor) in Dhangu, Gangasalan of Pauri Himalaya and his contemporary literature used to call him ‘Sant’. Sadanand Kukreti .Sadanand Kukreti is the first ever great personality of Himalaya who initiated writing the story in Garhwali language one of the oldest and prominent languages of Himalaya . The satiric third person description, story telling style and narration of Sadanand Kukreti is unique and his story ‘ Garhwali That’ puts him in the position of among Top Most Story Writers of world literature of any time .

The contribution of Sadanand in Garhwali language story literature is as equal as Oliver Goldsmith, Samuel Charles Dickson, Willkie Collins, in English literature; Christian Gellert, Jacob Grimm, Wilhelm Grimm, E. T. A . Hoffmann in Garman language story world; , Gottfried Keller, Charles Parrault, Jean de La Fontaine, Honore De Baizac, Prosper Merimee of French language literature; Niccolo Machiavelli, Giovanbattista Giraldi Cintholio, in Italian language; Gustavo Adolfo Becquer, Leopold Alas in Spanish story segment; Mori Ogwai , Shimazaki Toson of Japanese langue; Eduard Douwes Dekker Herman Heijermans of Dutch language; Maurus Jokai , kalman Mikszath of Hungarian story literature; Nikolai Gogol, Pushkin, Ivan Turgenew, Leo Tolstoy of Russian language; Henyk Sienkiewicz , Boleslav Prus of Polish language; Meyer Aron Goldschmidt, Jens Peter Jacobson of Denmark; Jorgen Moe, Peter Asjornsen, Bjornstjerne Bjornson of Norway; August Strindeberg, Selma Lagerlof of Sweden; Charles De Coster, Maurice Maeterlinck of Belgium; Antun G Matos of Yugoslavia; Laza Lazarevich of Serbian language; Svatopluck Cech of Czechoslovakia ; Deetrios Bikelas of Greece; I.L Caragiale , Marie Roumania of Romania language; Dimitr Ivanov of Bulgaria; Ricardo Fernandez-Garcia, of Soth America; J.M. Machado de Assis, of Brazil; Ventua Garcia Calderon of Peru; Rufino Blanco-Fombona of Venezuela; Washington Irving, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Edgar Poe, Mark Twain, Hennery James of United states of America; Bhartendu Harishchandra and prem Chand of Hindi language who initiated modernizing the story writing style, advanced the story writing art in their own respective languages or they were pioneers of modern story telling of their languages literature

Sadanand Kukreti was born in Gweel-Jaspur a twin village of Malla Dhangu of Pauri Garhwal , Himalaya on 7th March 1886. His father Baladatt Kukreti was accountant an in Public works division of British Garhwal ( today’s Pauri and Chamoli Garhwal ) . Sadanand Kukreti studied up to high School in Pauri city. After completing high School , Sadanand worked I Tihri riyasat as assistant to Tahsildar Thakur Jodh Singh Rawat . However, after a few years later due to conflict with Thakur Jodh Singh , Sadanand Kukreti left the job and started publishing and editing Vishal Kriti in February 1913 in Pauri.

Sadanand Kukreti wrote many articles against the Deputy Collector and British government . Due to sharp criticism of British Government and its officials in Vishal Kirti , british government accused Sadanand Kukreti as Congress man and a n anti nation element. Due to harassment by of British government, Sadanand Kukreti close down Vishal Kirti in December 1915. Sadanand Kukreti used to publish stories and articles in Garhwali language in Vishal Kirti

Sadanand joined a missionary school as teacher in Chalisain , Langur , Gangasalan . Sadanand Kukreti found that undercover of schooling the priest Peter and Christian teachers were converting innocent villagers into Christians. By wrong doings of missionary management in Chailusain missionary school, Sadanand Kukreti met the prominent people of the area Dhangu and requested them to open a school . The villagers of Kandi, Jaspur, Gweel , Bareth, Jalli , Saud supported his cause and helped to build the school building. The Rashtriya Vidyapeeth formally was open on 2nd April, 1926 in Silogi, Malla Dhangu. On the first day of formal opening of school, there were three teachers including Sadanand , Sher Singh Rawat of Timli of Khatsyun and Hari Prasad Uniyal of Jaltha (Dabralsyun) to teach the students. This school became a medium of education children of Dhangu, Udaipur, Langur and Dabralsyun for many decades . Sadanand Kukreti is called the Mahmana Madmohan Malviya of Gangasalan.

In Garhwali language literature, Sadanand Kukreti is called father of modern Garhwali story. The Garhwali literature historian and critic Abodh Bandhu Augean (1975) writes about him that his story ‘ Garhwali Thath’ was published in 1913 in Vishal Kirti and Kukreti published many stories in Garhwali language and also wrote articles in Garhwali.

The profound Hindi story writer Ramaprasad Ghildiyal (1953) said that the stories of Sadanand Kukreti as ‘Garhwali Thath ‘and ‘ Gundurun Kaunka Bhitar swala Pakwad’ are one of the greatest stories of world language of any time. Bahuguna writes that in reality, the modern Garhwali prose started by writings of Sadanand Kukreti in 1913 onwards. Great Garhwali personalities as Lalita Prasad Naithani, Mukandi Lal Barrister, Bhakta Darshan (ex central Minister central government New Delhi), Hariram Jakhmola (refrerence-3) a great teacher of his time, praised Sadanand Kukreti for his style of Garhwali prose. Bahuguna and Pahadi said that his style of writing Garhwali prose was not found even in Hindi of that time and they remarked that even they could not find any prose makers of any Indian languages of that time who could write such marvelously as Sadanand wrote Garhwali prose.

This author also supports comments of Ghildiyal and Bahuguna and others that the prose of Sadanand was of unique style and no Indian writers of his time (1913-1936) could compete his brilliancy in story telling, his craftsmanship in using sentences, characterization of each characters of the story, the tone of story, flow of the story, description of the scenes, use of proverbs and figure of speeches, contemporariness etc. Sadanand Kukreti is famous for his wit , satire , criticizing the bad habits of individuals as laziness of an woman, exaggerating social nonsense and making fun of those nonsense. His satire is horatian and many times ,it is juvenilia too . It seems humour comes out from the heart of Sadanand Kukreti. Sadanand Kukreti was capable in describing scene as easy as any greatest writer can depict the scene,

The work of Sadanand could be put with humorous and satire story tellers as Joel
Chandler Harris, Mark Twain, David Ross Locke, Washington Irving, Caroline Matilda Stansbury Kirkland Edward Everett Hale, William Sydney Porter "O. Henry", George Randolph Chester , William James Lampton etc.

The blending of humour, satire, abhorrence, is the exclusivity of Sadanand Kukreti
Since, Sadanand Kukreti had to busy in building the school and arranging the funds for running the junior school at Silogi, Sadanand could not be the preponderant story or prose writer but whatever Sadanand Kukreti wrote that is enough to position him one of the greatest story teller of world literature.
One of the greatest story writers of world literature and the father of modern Garhwali prose expired in 1936 in Dehradun


1-Bahuguna, Abodh Bandhu, 1975, Gadmatyeki Ganga, Alaknanda Prakashan , New Delhi, India, pp37-38
2- Ghildiyal, Ramaprasad , 1953, Pahadi Sahitya ka Jatiya Roop,Himachal Saptahik, Muni ki Reti, 26th January, 1953
3- Sant Sadanand Smiriti Granth, edited by Hari Prasad Kukreti in 1984, Silogi , Pauri Garhwal

Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2009

Garhwali, Kumaoni, Himalayan Literature

Prem Lal Gaud, Shashtri : A Prose Maker in Garhwali , Himalayan language
Bhishma Kukreti

Prem lal gaud Shashtri wrote mostly in Hindi but also published on prose collection book in Garhwali, Himalayan language.
Prem Lal Gaud Shashtri was born in a Himalayan village Gaindkhal, Talla Dhangu, Gangasalan of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand in 1947. After passing Acharya degree from Haridwar he shifted to Chandigarh. He was active organizing Uttarakhadis in Chandigarh and took part in cultural and social activities of Uttarakhandis in Chandigarh.
He wrote around ten books in Hindi. In Garhwali, Himalayan language literature, Gaud is famous for his book in ‘ Premekanki’ Premekanki is collections of prose written by Prem Lal Gaud Shashtri .

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2009

Garhwali, Kumaoni, Himalayan Literature

Dr. Purushottam Dobhal: A Garhwali Playwright
Bhishma Kukreti

Dr Purushottam Dobhal was expert in writing in Garhwali, Sanskrit , English and Hindi. In Garhwali, he is famous for writing dramas of social concern . Dobhal was educationist, a social activist and also work for opening many schools.
Dr Purushotaam Dobhal was born in 1920, in a Himalayan village Musmola of Tihri Garhwal. He passed Acharya degree in distinction that is with gold medalist. He served in many colleges . He was Ph D in Sanskrit language
Purushottam Dobhal won the first prize in World Sanskrit Short Story Competition in 1953-54. In Sanskrit , he wrote dramas and published three books of drama and collection of dramas.

He used to contribute for many English magazines.
Dobhal He wrote dramas in Hindi and short stories in this language .

Dr Purushottam Dobhal wrote many plays in Garhwali language
His dramas Bindra Kuansa, Burans, Kantha Mankai Jone, Tillu Rautelee , Kalpana, Suber and Fajitu in Garhwali language are famous plays . These plays were staged many times at different cities. Dobhal also delivered many radio-plays in Garhwali from Akashvani
The subject of plays of Purushottam Dobhal are mainly related to social and contemporary issues.
The Tillu Rauteli play is based on famous folklores of Garhwal, Himalayas.
His dialogues in Garhwali plays are simple but are influenced by Sanskrit but Sanskritized Garhwali dialogues do not become hurdle but support the characterization in the plays. Twist in the tale, reality make his play attractive to the audience.
Dr Purushottam Dobhal expired in 2003 in Dehradun, Himalaya.

Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2009

Garhwali, Kumaoni, Himalayan literature

Pitamber Datt Devrani : Collector of Garhwali Folk Songs and Folk Sports

Pitamber Datt Devrani is famous fro his Hindi writing about regional issues. However, he contributed in collecting the Garhwali folk songs of Gangasalan area and publishing them by different media.

Pitamber datt Devrani was born in Himalayan village sanesh, Kumbhichuad, Kotdwara Garhwal, in 1930 and expired in 2009. He did mA privately by his industrious nature. He started his career as teacher in Rashtriya Madhymik Vidyalaya, Silogi, Malla Dhangu , Pauri Garhwal and later on, joined Matiyali inter college. Devrani retired from Matiyali college as principal.

Apart from publishing many literary works in Hindi Pitamber Datt Devrani collected many regional Garhwali folk songs of Langur, Shila, Dhangu, Dabralsyun , Udaipur and Ajmer Pattis.and published them in Lok Sahitya Sangrah. Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal appreciated his contribution in collecting Garhwali folk songs of Gangasalan region and Dr Nautiyal referred tens of Garhwali folk songs collected by Pitamber Devrani in his famous book ‘ Garhwal ke Nritya Geet’. Pitamber Devrani also collected and wrote about Garhwali, Himalayan folk sports as gindi myala (Gend ka Mela - similar to Rugby and Hockey ) performed in Dadamandi (Shila) , Saud (Malla Dhangu), Katghar (Talla Dhangu), Devikhet (Dabralsyun) and Kandi-Kasyali (Udaypur) .

Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumabi, India, 2009

Garhwali, Kumaoni, Himalaya Literature

Ishwari Datt Juyal ‘Sharma’ :A Satiric and Humorous Garhwali Playwright
Bhishma Kukreti

Ishwari Datt Juyal “ Sharma’ is famous for his satiric and humorous Garhwali drama and uniting emigrant Uttarakhandis in Karachi now, in Pakistan.
Ishwari Datt Juyal ‘ Sharma’ was born in a Himalayan village Khetu, Patti Khatli, British Garhwal (Pauri Garhwal) in 1895.
After passing high school , he joined Indian railway services in Karachi now, in Pakistan. Ishwari Datt Juyal took keen interest in organizing emigrant Garhwalis, Uttarakhandis in Karachi and arranging cultural shows regularly in Karachi. Ishwari Datt used to participate in many conferences and mini meetings of emigrant Uttarakhandis of Karachi for knowing and solving the problems being faced by migrated Uttarakhandis in Karachi.
His interest in social problems and social causes. Inspired him to write articles in Garhwali and Hindi about many social issues of Garhwali, Himalaya..

Ishwari Datt Juyal ’ Sharma’ published a Garhwali, Mid Himalayan play ‘Parivartan’. Ishwari Datt and many social organizations staged ‘Parivartan ‘ many times. Every time, audiences accepted this play because the dialogues are hilarious, humorous, and with lot of wit and satire. No doubt, the subject of play is social but crisped script, characterization of characters, daily use dialogues, blending of Hindi sentences with Garhwali language made this play the darling of audience.
After partition . Ishwari Datt had to shift from Karachi to Saharanpur . Unfortunately, his writing in Garhwali, Himalayan langue was lost in shifting from Karachi.
Ishwari Datt Juyal ‘Sharma’ expired 18th April, 1969 in Saharpur.

Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2009

Garhwali, Kumaoni, Himalayan Literature

Vishvambar Dutt Uniyal: Playwright and Publisher

Vishvambar Dutt Uniyal is one of the playwrights of modern Garhwali, Himalayan drama and he work for initiating the Garhwali, Himalayan literature writing and publishing-popularizing the written Garhwali language works. He also published the Garhwali, Himalayan literature .

Vishvamber Datt Uniyal was born in a Himalayan village Uniyalgaon, Saklana of Tihri Riyasat in 1904. Vishvamber Datt was first Indian citizen who became the member of Mossorie municipal corporation.

Uniyal was a social worker and was very sensitive on the bad customs of the society. Vishvamber Datt Uniyal experienced the pain of woman who had mismatch marriages. There was a common custom to marry young daughters to older person or widow males by getting sizable money from the males. Uniyal wrote a play in Garhwali, ‘Vasanti’ related to mismatched marriage . Uniyal published ‘Vasanti’ drama in 1932 from Uttarakhand Press, Dehradun, Himalaya. Vishvamaber Uniyal was able to show the physical, psychological and social pain of a young female married to an old aged male . ‘Vasanti’ drama is capable to provide experiences of shattering of the dream of a teen aged girl, frustration , adjustment problems with old aged husband, frustration of physical and psychological pain, not having sexual and physical delight from old aged husband. Viashvamber Datt Uniyal attacked the ‘Nauni Bichanai’ bad custom ver effectively in Vasanti drama.
Vishvamber Datt was successful in portraying the situation of rural Garhwali, Himalayan society of his time and the play ‘Vasanti ’ is effective on attacking the bad customs of Garhwal, Himalaya of his time.

This play was staged many times in Dehradun and other towns of Garhwal, Himalaya and was praised liked by Garhwali , Himalayan audiences.

Vishvamber Datt Uniyal also edited and published the Garhwali, Himalayan poetry collection of Satya Sharan Raturi by name - Satya Kusumanjali.
Viahsvamber Datt Uniyal expired at the age of forty one in October, 1945, in Mossorie , Dehradun a famous hill station of Himalaya.

Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2009

Garhwali, Kumaoni, Himalayan Literature

Yogendra Krishna Daurgadatti Rudola : A Poet and Prose maker of Initial Stage
Bhishma Kukreti

Yogendra Krishna Rudola is one of the Garhwali (Himalayan ) language literature creator who created poetry and wrote prose to develop the culture of creating Garhwali literature. The hardship of Himalayan village life, the legendary brevity of Garhwalis (Himalayan) is reflected in the poems and prose of Yogendra Krishna Rudola

Yogendra Krishna Daurgadatti Rudola was born in Shrinagar, Pauri Garhwal of Himalaya in 1897.

Yogendra was a leaned scholar of Sanskrit, Hindia and Garhwali. Rudola was a teacher of Sanskrit. Yogendra Rudola wrote many inspirational prose in Garhwali and created poetry on the subject of legends of Garhwal, Himalaya.
Tilu Rauteli’ is famous poetry book of Yogendra Rudola in Garhwali and ‘Narendra Vansh Mahahakavya ‘ is a Sanskrit poetry book in his credit. Yogendra Daurgadatti Rudola published two Hindi poetry books are ‘ Bhavani Vilap’and ‘Tillotama’
Yogendra Krishna Daurgadatti Rudola expired in Kotdwara , Garhwal, Himalaya in 1977

Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2009

Garhwali, Kumaoni, Himalayan Literature

Harikrishna Daurgadatti Rudola: The Initial Poet of Modern Garhwali Poetry
Bhishma Kukreti

Harikrishna Daurgidatti Rudola is one of the initial poets of Garhwali (Himalayan ) language. His initiation in Garhwali poetry creation is commended by all. The greatness of Himalaya, Himalayan way of life and Garhwali Folk songs have complete influence on the poetries of Harikrishna Rudola.

Harikrishna Daurgidatti Rudola was born in Sharinagar , Garhwal of Himalaya region in 1855. Rudola was Sanskrit teacher and taught in the schools of Tihri and Srinagar (Garhwal -Himalaya) . Rudola also taught students privately after his retirement. Rudola was Karmkandi Brahmin too and this profession provided him chance to understand the difference between the social structures in British Garhwal and Tihri Riyasat ( a small Himalayan kingdom) and this social knowledge helped Harikrishna for creating poetries of social values.
Harikrishna Daurgidatti Rudola created literature in Sanskrit and his three books in Sanskrit were praised by professor Maxmullar .

Harikrishna ia one the poets of Garhwali language who initiated to write in Garhwali, publish them and at the same time popularize the modern Garhwali poetries among educated Garhwalis and students. All his Garhwali poems are published in ‘Garhwali Kavitavali’ a collection of Garhwali poetries by many poets. The poetries of Rudola are sophisticated , having inspirational subjects, with Garhwali symbols and imagery and have lyrical influences of Garhwali folk songs
Harikrishna Daurgidatti Rudola expired in 1892 in Shrinagar, Garhwal, Himalaya .

Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2009

Garhwali, Kumaoni, Himalayan Literature

Satya Sharan Raturi: Hero of Advancement of Garhwali Literature
Bhishma Kukreti

Satya Sharan Raturi is one of the Garhwali poets who accelerated the advancement of written Garhwali (Himalayan ) literature and he is one the pioneers of modern Garhwali ( Himalayan ) language poetry. The poetry of Satya Saran Raturi is full of inspirational value. Satya Saran Raturi was born in a typical Himalayan village Godi of Tihri (Uttarakhand) in 1869. Satya Saran was expert of Gardening and worked with government of Patiyala and Tihri kingdoms.

Satya Saran was having profound knowledge of Hindi and Garhwali. Raturi used to publish his Hindi poetry in Sarswati magazine regularly.
His famous inspiration Garhwali poem ‘ utha Garhwali ! Ab samou syuno ko nee cha ‘ was published in the first issue of ‘Garhwali’ magazine ( May, 1905).

Garhwali poems of Satyasaran are full of emotions, with figurative sentences and words, rhetoric, and most of poems are inspirational, . He also used common symbols and imagery of his time of Garhwal, Himalaya. His all poems are published in ‘ Garhwali Kavitwali’ a collection of poetries of many Garhwali poets as Chandra Mogan Raturi, Hari Krishna Rudola , Yogendra Krishna Rudola etc

Satya Saran is called true leader of advancing Garhwali literature in the first phase of modern Garhwali. Satya Saran also inspired other co-writers and educated Garhwali for creating Garhwali literature and publish that literature. It is said that he used to post letters to educated Garhwalis for serving Garhwali language.
Satya Saran Raturi expired on 24th January, 1926 in Patiyala.

Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2009

Garhwali, Kumaoni, Himalayan Literature

Chandra Mohan Raturi : Creator of Modern Garhwali Poetry of early stage
Bhishma Kukreti

Chandra Mohan Raturi is credited for initiating the acceleration of creating and publishing modern Garhwali poems. No doubt, Rajendra Dhashmana and Bhishma Kukreti accused them for bringing Hindiism in Garhwali poetry or encouraging using Hindi and Sanskrit words in Garhwali written forms barring the available Garhwali words in Garhwali vocabulary . However, no body can deny contribution of Chandra Mohan Raturi for initiating the modern Garhwali literature.

Chandra Mohan Raturi was born in 1880 in Godi, village of Tihri . He was attached to many social organization till his death in 1920. Raturi was attached to Garhwali Union and was one of the founder editorial board members of Garhwali magazine.

Chandra Mohan Raturi was proud of being Garhwali and he wrote in a Garhwali language article ‘Garhwali kavita’ article as, “ I accept Garhwal as my country/nation. I am proud of being Garhwali as English people are proud of being their Englishmen or Japanese feel proud on being Japanese. .. I respect my language Garhwali as mother. … I totally disagree that Garhwali is sub-dialect of Hindi… Garhwali has its own originality and Garhwali is not the corrupted form of Hindi at all and at any cost…”

Chandra Mohan Raturi was the expert writer of Garhwali, English , Sanskrit and Hindi, , he wrote many articles in Garhwali language in Garhwali magazine, which were of intellectual and social awakening significances.

Chandra Mohan Raturi created fine poetries in Garhwali and all his poems are published in ‘ Garhwali Kavitavali’ . Raturi used nature , inspiration in his poems of Garhwali . The range of symbols, imagery, allusiveness , metaphors , are marvelous. Chandra Mohan also used religious sensibility in his poems at times. His uses of natural scenery is precise and affection able.

Chandra Mohan Raturi has respectful position in Garhwali poetry world for inclination towards Garhwali language from Sanskrit and Hindi and making Garhwali language as strong as English. Chandra Mohan Raturi has same importance in Garhwali language as Geoffrey Chaucer, Gower, Piers and Plowman have the places in English for craftsmanship in polishing the language in making Garhwali poems modern and comparative to world languages poetries. Or Raturi could be positioned as Milton, Johnson, for refinement of languages

Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2009

Garhwali, Kumaoni, Himalayan Literature

Shiv Narayan Singh Bisht : Who collected Garhwali, Himalayan Folklores
Bhishma Kukreti

By profession, Shiv Narayan Singh Bisht was a businessman but he had love for legends of Garhwal, Himalaya. He collected folklores of Garhwal and published them too.
Shiv Narayan Singh Bisht was born in a small village Badkholu, Manyrasyun Patti of Pauri Garhwal on 17th January, 1887. He opened his shop naming ‘ Garhwal Vyavsaya Bhandar’ in Duggada an oldest business centre of Pauri Garhwal. He was elected twice the member of Jila Parishad, Pauri Garhwal, Himalaya.
Garhwalis will never forget his contribution in collecting Folklores of regional interest. He collected and inspire other for collecting folklores of each areas from Garhwal, specially of Salan area. He edited and published ‘ Gadhsumyal’ containing tens of folklores of Salan Garhwal. Still tens of folklores collected by him are unpublished .
Shiv Dayal Singh Bisht expired on 2nd August, 1933, Dwarikhal, Langur, Pauri Garhwal.

Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2009

Garhwali, Kumaoni, Himalayan Literature

Chakradhar Augean : A Garhwali Poet and Prose maker
Bhushma Kukreti

Chakradhar Bahuguna was a brilliant poet of Garhwali (Himalayan) language and he was also a prose writer of unique style.
Chakradhar Bahuguna belongs to village Pokhari, Patti- Chalansyun of Pauri Garhwal and was born on 19 August, 1920.

He did M.A in Sanskrit and phonology. He was an educationist.
He published two memorable poetry collections in Garhwali language- ‘ Mochhang’ and ‘Naubat’. critics and readers appreciated both the collections that his daughter Veena Pani Joshi (the famous creative of Garhwali, Kumaoni and Hindi) republished both the collections) .

Chakradhar Bahuguna was also a Garhwali (Himalayan) language prose maker and published ‘ Garhwali Dant Kathyen’ in Garhwali language in cooleboration with his daughter Veena Pani Joshi. Dant Kathayen is the collection of Folk Stories of Garhwal (Himalaya) .
Chakradhar Bahuguna expired on 24th September, 1982 in Dehradun.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2009

Garhwali, Kumaoni, Himalayan Literature

Bhawani Dutt Thapliyal : The Father of Modern Garhwali Drama
Bhishma Kukreti

Garhwal, Himalaya had long tradition in playing different folk dramas . These dramas are having forms lyrical, semi prose and prose. There are universal fork dramas played all over Garhwal ( Himalaya ), some folk plays are played in specific areas and others are played by individuals and forgotten. Credit goes to Bhawani Dutt Thapliyal for creating and staging first ever modern Garhwali (Himalayan ) drama in this earth.

Bhawani Dutt Thapliyal was born in village- Khaid, Patti Mawalsyun of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand., in 1867.

Bhawani Dutt Thapliyal joined government service and worked with district board department.

Bhawani Dutt Thapliyal wrote ‘Jay-Vijay ‘ first ever Garhwali (Himalayan) modern drama in 1911 and second modern Garhwali (Himalayan) drama ‘ Bhakt Prahlad’ in 1914.
However, from staging point of view, ‘Prahlad’ is first ever modern drama staged in 1930 . The audience praised the drama very much and this drama is stage more than fifty times in many Indian cities . Though the drama was written in 1914, the drama is still craze among the drama creators for staging and audience as well because of its social awareness theme, dramatic value, twist in the tale, sharp , satiric and witty dialogues, emotional story, and simple but vibrant language.
Bhawani Dutt Thapliyal expired on 29th April, 192

Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2009

Garhwali, Kumaoni, Himalayan Literature

Ram Lal Pundir : A Garhwali language Poet

Ram lal Pundir is remembered for his commentary on the melodies of Garhwali poetry and translating Bhagwvad Gita in Garhwali.

Ram Lal Pundir was born on 4th May, 1915 in Nauli village of Chalansyun Patti of Pauri Garhwal.

Ram Lal joined sate government service in agriculture department and retired as agriculture office in Srinagar , Garhwal.

Ram Lal Pundir wrote commentary on the melody properties in Garhwali language ‘ Kavyayukt Garhwali’ in Hindi language.

He wrote poems in Garhwali and published in local newsletters
Ram Lal translated Gita in Garhwali language but still the work is unpublished
Ram Lal Pundir expired on 28th April, in 1984 at Shrinagar, Garhwal.

Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2009

Garhwali, Kumaoni, Himalayan Literature

Tara Dutt Gairola : The Initiating Garhwali poet of Modern time
Bhishma Kukreti

Tara Dutt Gairola has many credits as far as Garhwali language is concerned. He was one of the poets who initiated Garhwali poetry writing in modern time. He also brought the Garhwali folk Songs in lime light.
Tara Dutt Gairola was born on 6th June, 1875 in Daldhung village, patti Badyargarh of Tihri Riyasat. He was LLB and shifted to Pauri for his law practices. Tara Dutt Gairola was elected M L C and was awarded Rai Bahdur by British Government.
Gairola was expert of Garhwali, English , Urdu, and Hindi languages.
Tara Dutt Gairola was attached to Garhwali magazine and also edited a first ever Garhwali poetries collection ‘Garhwali Kavitavali’ , wherein there are Garhwali poems of many Garhwali language poets.
Tara dutt Gairola was fine Garhwali poet and he published his Garhwali language poetry collection by name - ‘Sadei’. The poems of ‘Sadei’ are of pathos raptures and emotions.
Tara Dutt published books related to Garhwal -Himalayas in English too. Government Press Allabad published his collection and translated Garhwali folk Stories- Folklores by name- ‘Himalayan Folklores’ . Gairola also wrote the books (till date unpublished ) - A- Glimpse into the History of Garhwal, B- Himalayan Magic, C-Life and Letters of a Garhwali patriot Chandra Mohan Raturi.
Tara Dutt Gairola expired on 28 th May, 1950 in Pauri.

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